Thursday, June 25, 2020

The Old Man And The Sea Book Review Assignment Paper - 550 Words

The Old Man And The Sea Book Review Assignment Paper (Book Review Sample) Content: Students NameProfessors NameDateThe Old Man and the Sea The Old Man and the SeaSummary The old man and the sea is a seemingly simple book featuring the life of a poor old experienced fisherman Santiago who for 84 days in a row had not had any catch. He however still went fishing everyday and ensured his fishing lines were in line. On the 85th day of his dry spree he heads further into the Gulf of Mexico where he never went before and here he hooks a giant marlin (Rama Rao, 56). Unable to pull the fish into his skiff he held on the onto line for three days suffering but enduring deep cuts on his back with the struggles of the fish to unhook itself. He however kills it with his harpoon after it gives up and lashes it into his boat and heads home with his hard-won trophy. Sharks however eat the marlin leaving only the skeleton which is the only thing he gets home with (Hemingway, 87).Conflict of the StoryThough simple, the old man and the sea this a life challenging book which redefines success and victory. Success is too often used to indicate the value of a person but how they achieve it is not considered. Whether or not they struggled and retained their dignity to achieve it or they did wrongs and used shortcuts to achieve it, it is still considered success. This book therefore has the idea of showing that proper success should be earned through honest means, determination and perseverance while taking no shortcuts or depending on mere luck.How the Book Relates to A Persons Everyday LifeThis book has multiple life lessons that one should and must learn from. First, is to not depend on luck. Santiago says that it is better to be lucky, but he would rather be exact, and then luck finds him. Depending on luck is not convenient as the luck might not always find you. One should work to achieve what they what so that with or without luck they achieve their goals.Secondly, a man should be determined and perseverant without complaint. Santiago went to t he sea every morning while shivering in the cold. He never complained but endured it all, determined and knowing one day he would make a fine catch. In life therefore one should endure the struggles and keep focused on what they want with the dream of achieving it.Thirdly, the book brings out that one should not boast. Santiago despite his experience in fishing does not boast about it to his young friend Manolin who insists of what a great fisherman he was. He remains humble admitting there are better fishermen than him (Hemingway, 67). One should therefore not boast in life but we should be humble in our success and determined through our struggles.It also relays the message that one should take inspiration from others. It is the great Joe DiMaggio that gives Santiago inspiration to keep going. People should therefore look for a role model or mentor in life so they have someone to look up to on order to keep them going.Finally and most importantly, the book sends the message that o ne s...

Monday, May 18, 2020

Design and planning of 2g, 3g and channel modelling of 4g - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 28 Words: 8357 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Cellular Communication In this chapter, all the background knowledge which is required for this project has been discussed. 1.1 Cell The area covered by single BTS(base transceiver station) is known as cell. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Design and planning of 2g, 3g and channel modelling of 4g" essay for you Create order 1.1.1 Shape of cell The shape of cell depends upon the coverage of the base station. The actual coverage of the base station is called footprint and is found with the help of measurements from the field. We can make our calculations easier by using the shape of circle noting that there would not be spaces between them. As, the purpose is to provide coverage to each and every subscriber. But if there are spaces between the coverage areas then the person in that specific area will not be able to get any coverage. To cover the problem of interleaving spaces, the shapes that can be used theoretically are: Square Triangle Hexagon But in selection criteria one thing must be kept in mind that every person within a cell get same coverage specially the person at the edges of the cell. So hexagon is the shape among these three choices with largest coverage area. Its coverage area and shape is closest to the circle and it helps tessellate. Omnidirectional antenna is used in the center of it, and if we want to use sectored directional antenna then it must be used at any three corners of it. 1.1.2 Area of the Cell The area of a cell with radius R is shown in figure 1.1(a), is given by: 1.2 Frequency planning While developing the cellular system, it has limited capacity due to the given bandwidth. So, in order to solve this problem Cellular Systems have to depends on an intelligent and more use of channels through out the area. Every cellular base station is alloted a group of different radio channels to be used in a cell. Base station in the adjacent cells use completely different frequencies. For this purpose antennas are used such that their power may get limited within the cell. In this way the allocated frequencies maybe reused in different cells again. The process of allocating and selecting channel groups for all the base stations in a system is known as frequency reuse or frequency planning. We use two types of antennas: Omnidirectional antenna Sectored directional antenna Omnidirectional antennas are used in the cells which are centrally excited and sectored directional antennas are used in the edge excite cells. To understand the concept of frequency reuse, let us say that S are the total no. of duplex channels available for use, k number of channels given to each cell i.e. kS, N are the no. of cells in which S channels are divided. The total number of channels is denoted by: S=kN (1.2) Where N is no. of cells which uses the complete set of available frequencies known as cluster frequency reuse factor (1.3) Each cell is in the cluster is assigned of the available channels. The radio frequency from 3Hz to 3000GHz are separated into 12 bands, as shown in the table. Frequency spectrum has different propagation characteristics. As far as concerned to the mobile communication, we only pay attention to the UHF spectrum. 1.2.1 Cluster size(N) If we use N large (a large cluster), the ratio of the cell radius and the distance between co-channel decreases, which causes weaker co-channel interference. But if N is smaller, by keeping the cell size same then we more clusters are needed to cover an area. Hence the capacity is increased. So if we use N larger then the quality of voice is good but the capacity is less and vice versa. 1.3 Interference Interference is one of the major factor in the capacity and performance of a cellular network. The interference is due to a call in the neighbouring cell, another base station operating in the same frequency. Interference causes crosstalk and noise. There are two types of interference. Adjacent channel interference Co-channel interference 1.3.1 Adjacent channel interference Adjacent channel interference results from the signals which are side by side in frequencies to the desires signal. Adjacent channel interference is caused by wrong filtering, like incomplete filtering of not wanted modulation in frequency modulation (FM) systems, not proper tuning, or poor control of frequency. It causes problem. Adjacent channel interference can be reduced by careful channel assignment, filtering and power control within a cell. 1.3.2 Co-channel interference Co-channel cells are the cell which use the same set of frequencies. For example, in the figure 1.2 all the letter A are the co-channel cell because they use the same set of frequencies. Interference due to the co-channel cells is called co-channel interference. It can be reduced by using greater value of N(cluster size). If D is the distance between the co-channel cells and R is radius of the cell, then by using greater value of N the ratio between D to R is increased hence reducing co-channel interference. The relation can b written as: 1.4 Improving coverage and capacity The number of channels assigned to a cell became insufficiently as the demand of wireless system increases. To provide more channels per coverage, some techniques are introduced which improve the coverage and capacity. These techniques are: Cell splitting Sectoring Microcell zone concept 1.4.1 Cell Splitting Cell splitting is the process of dividing a cell into smaller cells. In this process we reduce the antenna height and power of the base station. Cell splitting increases the capacity by increasing frequency reuse factor. In cell splitting Channel assignment techniques remain the same. SIR remains the same Trunking inefficiency do not get suffer. Trunking efficiency is the measure of the number of users which can be offered a particular Grade of service with the specific configuration of the channels. The grade of service (GOS) is the measure of the ability to access a trunked system during the busy hours. The radius of the new cell is reduce to half. So power is also reduced. 1.4.2 Sectoring Sectoring uses directional antennas for controlling the interferences and frequency reuse of channels. The co-channel interference is reduced and thus increasing system performance by using directional antenna. A cell is normally divided into three 120 sectors or six 60sectors. When sectoring is used, the channels used in a particular cell are broken into sectored groups and are used only within a particular sector. The no. of channels get divided into sectored groups, so the trunking efficiency is reduced. In sectoring SIR is improved by reducing interference and trunking efficiency is reduced. Handoff increased in sectoring. The s/I improvement allows to decrease the cluster size N in order to improve the frequency reuse, and thus the system capacity. Further improvements in s/I is achieved by downtilting the sector antennas. 1.4.3 Microcell Zone Concept Microcell Zone concept distributes the coverage of a cell and extends the cell boundry to hard to reach places. It maintains the S/I and trunking efficiency, and increases the coverage and capacity of an area. 1.5 Radio wave propagation Radio waves propagate through different channels and by different ways to reach the MS(Mobile Station). It also depends upon the speed of the wave. The propagation of radio waves depends into two types: Large scale propagation Small scale propagation(Fading) 1.5.1 Large scale propagation The model predicts that the average signal strength for all transmitter-receiver (TR) distance on a scale known as large scale propogation model. 1.5.2 Small scale propagation The models that predicts the rapid fluctuation of the received signal strength over a short distance known as small scale propagation model or fading. 1.5.3 Free Space Propagation Model The free space propagation model is used when the transmitter and receiver have line of sight (LOS) between them to predict the received signal strength. Where Pr = received power. Pt = transmitted power, Gt and Gr = transmitter and receiver antenna gain, do= T-R separation, L = system loss factor = wavelength. 1.6 Propagation Mechanisms The propagation mechanisms which effect propagation are: Reflection Scattering Diffraction Reach directly (in case of Line of Sight) If there is line of sight signal reach the Mobile station directly and signal power is very strong. 1.6.1 Reflection Reflection occurs when an electromagnetic wave falls upon an object which is large as compare to the wavelength of the wave. It occurs from buildings, walls, surface of earth etc. 1.6.2 Diffraction Diffraction happens when the path between the transmitters and receivers is disturbed by a surface with sharp edges. It source is any sharp edge object. Knife edge diffraction Model is used for diffraction. 1.6.3 Scattering Scattering occurs when an electromagnetic wave falls upon an object which has small dimension as compared to the wavelength of the wave. Scattering occurs due to small objects, rough surfaces or any irregularities. Objects such as lamp posts, trees scatter the radio waves. Radar Cross Section Model is used for sectoring. 1.7 Small Scale Fading Fading is the fluctuation in the received signal strength over very short distance. Fading is due to reception of different versions of same signals. Following are the factors which influence Small-Scale Fading are: Multipath propagation: Due to absence of LOS signal follows the multipath due to reflection, diffraction, scattering. Speed of the mobile: Fading also accurs due to the movement of the mobile as the signal strength changes. Speed of the surrounding objects: Fading also occurs due to the movement of mobile, if the speed of the surrounding object is much faster then the speed of the mobile then it also induces Doppler shift. The transmission BW (bandwidth) of the signal: The received signal is distorted if the transmitted signal bandwidth is greater than the bandwidth of the channel. 1.8 GSM The first GSM network was launched in 1991. The GSM network was structured hierarchically. It consists of one administrative region, which is assigned to MSC. Each administrative region is consists of at least one location area (LA). LA is also called the visited area. An LA consists of several cell groups. Each cell group is assigned to a base station controller (BSC). Cells of one BSC may belong to different LAs. GSM distinguishes explicitly between users and identifiers. The user identity associates with a MS by mans of personal chip cards, the subscriber identity module (SIM). The SIM is portable and transferable MSs. The mobile Roaming number is a temporary location-dependent ISDN number. It is assigned by a locally responsible Visited Location Number (VLR). The GSM network can defined into four major parts. Mobile station (MS). Base station Sub-system (BSS). Network and switching Sub-system (NSS). Operation and support Sub-system (OSS). 1.8.1 Mobile station A mobile station consists of two parts. Mobile equipment and terminal. Subscriber identity module (SIM). 1.8.2 THE Terminal There are different types of terminal distinguished principally by their power and application: The fixed terminals are installed in cars. The GSM portable terminals can be used in the vehicles. The hand held terminals have experienced a biggest success depending upon their weight and volume, which are decreasing continuously. These terminals can emit power of 2 w. The evolution of technologies decreases the maxpower to 0.8 watts. 1.8.3 SIM Sim is a smart card which identifies the terminal. Using the sim card in the mobile, the user can access all the services provided by the provider. Terminal does not operate without the sim,. Personal identification number(PIN) helps protect sim. 1.9 The Base Station Subsystem The BSS connects the MS to Network Switching Sub-system. It is incharge of transmission as well as reception. The BSS is further divided into two main parts. Base transceiver station (BTS) or base station. Base Station Controller(BSC). 1.9.1 The Base Transceiver Station The BTS deals with the transceivers and antennas which are used in each cell of a network. BTS is usually in the center of cell. Size of the cell is defined by its transmitting power. Each BTS has one to sixteen transceivers which depends upon the density of users. 1.10 The Base Station Controller The BSC controllers the group of BTS and manages radio resources. The BSC is incharge of handover, frequency hoping and exchange of radio frequency power level of BTSs. 1.11 The Network and Switching Subsystem It is to manage the communication between mobile and other users, such as ISDN users, telephony users. It store the information in data bases about the subscriber and manage their mobility. 1.12 The Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) It is the central component of the NSS. Network Switching Functions are performed by the MSC. It provides connection to more other networks. Chapter 2 Planning One of the important phase of the project in which all the detail information is gathered about different areas and their population including city boundary, market analysis and roads are the key features in these details are city profiling. This phase is divided into different tasks. 2.1 Lahore City Map First is to get the detailed map of the Lahore city, which includes all the aspects related to the project. These are following:- Area division Dense area Sub-urban area open area Boundaries of City 2.2 Boundary Marking The project Radio Frequency Planning is basically the frequency planning of the city, not to its belongings areas. The exact boundary of the city is marked in order to concentrate on the marked area. 2.3 Population Population of the city plays an important role in the frequency planning. It helps a lot in the estimations and assumptions. The population of the city is around 10 million. 2.4 Estimations and Assumptions This part is mainly concerned with the frequency planning. When a new telecommunication company comes in the market, it estimates it users. This estimation is done with respect to the total population of the particular area. The estimations are done to estimate the users on urban, suburban and open areas. 2.5 Area Division The area division depends upon the percentage of population in an area and type of area as it is the important factor in the site as wall as frequency planning. The Lahore city is divided into three major areas. 2.5.1 Urban Area Urban area is an area which is surrounded by more density of humans and structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it 2.5.2 Sub-Urban Area Suburban area is districts located either inside a town or citys outer premises or just outside its limits. 2.5.3 Open Area Open area is partially settled places away from the large cities. Such areas are different from more intensively settled urban and suburban areas. There are less population as compared to urban and sub-urban areas. 2.6 Site Planning 2.6.1 Map of Lahore 2.6.2 Urban Area 2.6.3 Sub-Urban Area 2.6.4 Open Area HATA Model for Urban Area = Path loss in Urban Areas in decibel (dB) = Height of base station in meters (m) = Height of mobile station Antenna in meters (m) = Frequency of Transmission in megahertz (MHz). = Distance between the base station and mobile stations in kilometers To calculate radius of a site of Urban Area For Downlink =-75 dBm(this power covers both indoor and outdoor coverage range -70 to -90 dBm ) = 35 m(Average height of antenna in city is 30 to 200 m) = 1.5 m = 13 dBm = 46 dBm (Max Power transmitted by Base Station) = Cable loss = 2.01 dBm = 945 Mhz (Downlink frequency 935 to 960 MHz) = Combine Loss= 5.5 dBm Putting in HATA equation For Uplink = -102 dbm(Min Power received by Base Station) = 29.1 dBm (Max transmitted power mobile) = 900 MHz (890 to 915 MHz) Putting in HATA equation We will be using d=0.90 Km as it covers both Uplink and Downlink. For Sub-Urban Area For Downlink For downlink of Suburban parameters are same as for Urban. For Uplink Uplink parameters are also same as Urban Areas We will be using d=2.32 Km for Suburban Area. For Open Areas Downlink For downlink parameters are same as Urban Areas For Uplink We will be using d=8 for Open Areas. We will be using 65 degree directional Antennas. Angle between 2 consecutive lobes is 120 degree. r=Radius of lobes For Full Lobe For All 3 Lobes Area of site in Urban Area of site in Suburban Area of site in Fields(Open Area) Calculations for Number of BTS 2.7 Frequency Planning One of the breakthrough in solving the problem of congestion and user capacity is the cellular concept. Cellular radio systems rely on reuse of channels throughout a coverage region. A group of radio channels are allocated to each cellular base station to be used within a area known as cell. Different channels are assingned in the adjacent cells of the base station. The same group of channels can be used by limiting the coverage area, within the boundaries of a cell to cover different levels, within tolerable limits. Frequency planning is the design process of selecting, allocating or assinging channel group stations within a system. The theoretical calculations, and fixed size of a cell is assumed, that can differentiate no of channels in a cell and from that can differentiate cluster size and will differ, the capacity of the cellular system. There is a trade between the interference abd capacity in theoretical calculation as if we reduce the cluster size more cells are needed to cover the area and more capacity. But from another perceptive small cluster size causes the ratio between cell radius, and the distance between co-channels cells to increase, leading to stronger co-channels interference. In practical calculations, a fixed no of channels are allocated to a cell. One channel per lobe 3channels are allocated to a cell. The capacity can be increased by allocating 2 channels per lobe or 6 channels per cell. But after allocating channels once, they will remain fixed for the whole cellular system and frequency planning. Now as with the fixed no of channels as per cell, the capacity will remain constant of the system and we can achieve weaker co-channel interference, by having a small cluster size(N). A cluster size of 7 is selected in this project, which is also discussed. So in later practical world , there is not a trade-off between capacity and co-channel interference. 2.7.1 Calculations The city of Lahore is divided into 120 cells. We take 3 channels per cell that gives us 1 cell = 3 channels Reuse factor = 1/N = 1/7 Which means that frequency can be reused after a cluster of 7 cells. That gives us the total of 7 x 3 =21+ 2(guard cells)=23 channels We will be using 23 channels with a reuse factor of 1/7. 2.8 Implementation in GAIA Figure 2.1 is a snapshot of GAIA planning tool showing us the structure of an urban area. This figure illustrates the urban boundary which we calculate during city profiling. It also shows the antenna system used, in this case 3 sectors with 120 degree azimuth spacing is used. Antennas are installed on the rooftop of buildings or houses due to dense population and to provide a better coverage. Figure 2.2 shows us the planning of a Sub-Urban area with sites more distance apart as population is less, compared to urban. In Sub-Urban 3 sector cell is used which is similar to the ones used in Urban Figure 2.3 shows us the coverage planning of a network in an open area. Here the sites are further apart as open area has least population. 3 sector cell is used with the antennas installed above a steel structure for better coverage. Figure 2.4 shows the sector wise cell area of the sites in the urban area of the city in GAIA, which can be differentiated with the help of different color for each sector, also it shows the coverage area of every site. We have used grid approach in this planning, it is the most widely used and most effective technique used theoretically and practically. Figure 2.5 shows the cell boundary of sites in Sub-urban area of the city. Figure 2.6 shows the cell boundary in the open area of the city. Figure 2.7 illustrates the signal strength in the urban area of the city. Because of the dense population the signal power is strong throughout to ensure high quality calls to the subscribers with minimum interference and call drop. Figure 2.8 shows the 2G signal strength in the Sub-urban areas where population density is low and so the power required is less as compared to urban areas. Figure 2.9 shows the serving signal strength in open area. The signal is the weakest as there is the least number of people in open area. CHAPTER 3 FUNDAMENTALS OF 3G 3.1 INTRODUCTION The Universal Mobile Telephony System (UMTS) or 3G as it is known is the next big thing in the world of mobile telecommunications. It provides convergence between mobile telephony broadband access and Internet Protocol (IP) backbones. This introduces very variable data rates on the air interface, as well as the independence of the radio access infrastructure and the service platform. For users this makes available a wide spectrum of circuit-switched or packet data services through the newly developed high bit rate radio technology named Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). The variable bit rate and variety of traffic on the air interface have presented completely new possibilities for both operators and users, but also new challenges to network planning and optimization. The success of the technology lies in optimum utilization of resources by efficient planning of the network for maximum coverage, capacity and quality of service. This part of our project aims to detail method of UMTS Radio Network (UTRAN) Planning. The new technologies and services have brought vast changes within the network planning; the planning of a 3G network is now a complex balancing act between all the variables in order to achieve the optimal coverage, capacity and Quality of Service simultaneously. 3.2 WCDMA In UMTS access scheme is DS-CDMA (Direct Sequence CDMA) which involves that a code sequence is directly used to modulate the transmitted radio signal with information which is spreaded over approximately 5 MHz bandwidth and data rate up to 2 Mbps. Every user is assigned a separate code/s depending upon the transaction, thus separation is not based on frequency or time but on the basis of codes. The major advantage of using WCDMA is that there is no plan for frequency re-use. 3.3 NODE B Node B functions as a RBS (Radio Base Station) and provides radio coverage to a geographical area, by providing physical radio link between the UE (User Equipment) and the network. Node B also refer the codes that are important to identify channels in a WCDMA system. It contains the RF transceiver, combiner, network interface and system controller, timing card, channel card and backplane. The Main Functions of Node B are: Closed loop power control CDMA Physical Channel coding Modulation /Demodulation Micro Diversity Air interface Transmission /Reception Error handling Both FDD and TDD modes are supported by Single node B and it can be co-located with a GSM BTS to reduce implementation costs. The conversion of data from the Radio interface is the main task of Node B. It measures strength and quality of the connection. The Node B participates in power control and is also responsible for the FDD softer handover. On the basis of coverage, capacity and antenna arrangement Node B can be categorizes as Omni directional and Sectorial: OTSR (Omni Transmitter Sector Receiver) STSR (Sector Transmitter Sector Receiver) 3.3.1 OTSR (Omni Transmit Sector Receive) The OTSR configuration uses a single (PA) Power Amplifier, whose output is fed to a transmit splitter. The power of the RF signal is divided by three and fed to the duplexers of the three sectors, which are connected to sectorized antennas. 3.3.2 STSR (Sectorial Transmit Sector Receive) The STSR configuration uses three (PA) Power Amplifier, whose output is fed directly to the duplexers of the three sectors, which are connected to sectorized antennas. Node B serve the cells which depend on sectoring. 3.4 ACCESS MODES 3.4.1 FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) A duplex method whereby uplink and downlink transmissions use two separated radio frequencies. In the FDD, each downlink and uplink uses the different frequency band. 3.4.2 TDD (Time Division Duplex) It is a method in which same frequency is used for the transmission of downlink and uplink by using synchronized time intervals. Time slots are divided into transmission and reception part in the physical channel. 3.4.3 Frequency Bands MODE UP-LINK MHz DOWN- LINK MHz CHANNEL SPACING CHANNEL RASTER FDD 1920-1980 2110-2170 5MHz 200KHz TDD 1900-1920 2010-2025 1900-1920 2010-2025 5MHz 200KHz 3.4 CELLULAR CONCEPT The UMTS network is third generation of cellular radio network which operate on the principle of dividing the coverage area into zones or cells (node B in this case), each of which has its own set of resources or transceivers (transmitters /receivers) to provide communication channels, which can be accessed by the users of the network. A cell is created by transmitting numerous number of low power transmitters. Cell size is determined by the different power levels according to the subscriber demand and density within a specific region. Cells can be added to accommodate growth. Communication in a cellular network is full duplex, which is attained by sending and receiving messages on two different frequencies. In order to increase the frequency reuse capability to promote spectrum efficiency of a system, it is desirable to reuse the same channel set in two cells which are close to each other as possible, however this increases the probability of co-channel interference . The performance of cellular mobile radio is affected by co channel interference. Co-channel interference, when not minimized, decreases the ratio of carrier to interference powers (C/I) at the periphery of cells, causing diminished system capacity, more frequent handoffs, and dropped calls. Usually cells are represented by a hexagonal cell structure, to demonstrate the concept, however, in practice the shape of cell is determined by the local topography. 3.4.1 Types of Cell The 3G network is divided on the basis of size of area covered. Micro cell the area of intermediate coverage, e.g., middle of a city. Pico cell the area of smallest coverage, e.g., a hot spot in airport or hotel. Macro cell the area of largest coverage, e.g., an complete city. 3.5 FADING Fading is another major constraint in wireless communication. All signals regardless of the medium used, lose strength this is known as attenuation/fading. There are three types of fading: Pathloss Shadowing Rayleigh Fading 3.5.1 Pathloss Pathloss occurs as the power of the signal steadily decreases over distance from the transmitter. 3.5.2 Shadowing Shadowing or Log normal Fading is causes by the presence of building, hills or even tree foilage. 3.5.3 Rayleigh Fading Rayleigh Fading or multipath fading is a sudden decrease in signal strength as a result of interference between direct and reflected signal reaching the mobile station. 3.6 HANDOVER IN CDMA The term handover or handoff refers to the process of transferring data session or an ongoing call from channel to channel connected to the core network to another. The handover is performed due to the mobility of a user that can be served in another cell more efficiently. Handover is necessary to support mobility of users. Handover are of following types (also known as handoff): Hard Handover Soft Handover Softer Handover 3.6.1Hard.Handover In Hard handover the old radio links in the UE are dispose of before the new radio links takes place. It can be either seamless or non-seamless. In seamless hard handover, the handover is not detected by the user. A handover that needs a change of the carrier frequency is a hard handover. 3.6.2Soft.Handover Soft handover takes place when cells on the same frequency are changed. Atleast one radio link is always kept to the UTRAN in the removal and addition of the radio links. It is opperated by means of macro diversity in which many radio links are active. 3.6.3Softer.handover It is one of the important case of soft handover which describe the removal and addition of the radio links which is being belonged by the same Node B. Macro diversity can be performed in the NODE B with maximum ratio combining in softer handover. There are inter-cell and intra-cell handover. Handover 3G 2G (e.g. handover to GSM) FDD inter-frequency hard handover TDD/FDD handover (change of cell) TDD/TDD handover FDD/TDD handover (change of cell) Handover 2G 3G (e.g. handover from GSM 3.7 CODES IN CDMA CDMA uses a technology called the spread-spectrum. In spread-spectrum, the generated signals are spread in the frequency domain. These signals are secure, less affective to noise and resistant to jamming. Spread-spectrum allows multiple users to communicate using same physical channel. This gives the communicated data a much higher data bandwidth than it usually has. Spread-spectrum uses a special coding scheme in which every user is assigned a specific code for communication and in a channel, only users associated with a particular can communicate. CDMA system has asymmetric links (i.e. the forward and reverse links have different link structures).The differences ranges from the modulation scheme to error control methods. In addition, each link uses different codes to channels individual user. The forward link uses Walsh codes, while reverse link uses Pseudorandom Noise (PN) codes for channelization. PN(Pseudorandom Noise) Codes Walsh Codes 3.7.1 Walsh Codes In CDMA all the users are transmitted in same RF band. In order to avoid mutual interference on the forward link, Walsh codes are used to separate individual users while they simultaneously occupy the same RF band. They provide orthogonality in a cell among all the users. Different Walsh codes are assingned by the base station among every user traffic channel. 64 codes are available for IS-95. For pilot code, code 0 is used and for synchronization code 32 is used. Control channel uses the codes 1 though 7, and the remaining codes are available for traffic channels. At the same time Codes 2 through 7 can be used for traffic channels. They are derived from Haddamard matrices. They also have a outstanding quality that in their family codes are orthogonal to each other and can also create channelization in 1.25 MHz band. They are used to spread over the reverse channel and for modulation and are also used to create anorthogonal modulation on the forward link. They create channels in CDMA and are the backbone of CDMA systems. 3.7.2 PN CODES The forwad link of IS-95 CDMA has pilot and sync channels to aid synchronization, the reverse link does not have pilot and sync channels.The mobile stations transmits at will, and no attempt is made to synchronize their transmission. Thus Walsh cods cannot be used for the reverse link. The incoherent nature of the reverse link calls for the use of another class of codes, PN codes, for channelization. Codes used by CDMA are known as Pseudo Noise (PN) code. A PN code is a binary sequence in random, consisting of 1s and 0s, which are produced by an algorithm making it unique for every user. It can be reused in different manner by different users. These PN codes are used to encode and decode the users signal in CDMA. This helps users to avoid crosstalk, interference and noise as only the signals with special PN codes are received while others appear as noise to the system. These codes have low cross-correlation factor and codes are unique for every user. These codes provide a strong shield against jamming and data theft. The form of carrier modulation we can use is Amplitude Modulation. However in practice Phase Shift Keying (PSK) is usually used. The process of modulating the carrier with the PN code is called spreading. PN CODE GENERATION A usual way of producing a PN code is by using a shift-register. The shift register generators produce a sequence depending on the number of stages and the initial conditions. A shift-register of length n has a period given by the equation: 3.8 CDMA LOGICAL CHANNELS The communications between the mobile and the base station takes place using specific channels. A channel is a stream data designated for a specific use or person and is separated by a code. A channel may be a voice data or overhead control data. There are two types of channels: Forward link channels Reverse link channels 3.8.1 Forward link channels The Forward CDMA channel is from cell-to-mobile direction or the downlink path. It consists of: Pilot channel Paging channel Sync channel Traffic channels 3.8.1.1 PILOT CHANNEL Pilot Channel is a reference channel which the mobile station uses for acquisition, timing and as a phase reference for coherent demodulation. It is transmitted at all times by each base station on each active CDMA frequency. Each mobile station tracks this signal continuously. 3.8.1.2 PAGING CHANNEL Sync Channel carries a single, repeating message that conveys the timing and system configuration information to the mobile station in the CDMA system. 3.8.1.3 SYNC CHANNEL Paging Channels primary purpose is to send out pages, that is, notifications of incoming calls, to the mobile stations. The base station uses them to transmit system overhead information and mobile station- specific messages. 3.8.1.4 TRAFFIC CHANNEL Forward Traffic Channels are code channels used to assign call (usually voice) and signaling traffic to individual users. 3.8.2 Reverse link channels The Reverse CDMA channel is from mobile-to-cell direction of communication or the uplink path. Access channel Traffic channel 3.8.2.1 ACCESS CHANNEL Access Channels are used by mobile stations to initiate communication with the base station or to respond to Paging Channel messages. The Access Channel is used for short signaling message exchanges such as call originations, responses to pages, and registrations. 3.8.2.2 TRAFFIC CHANNEL Reverse Traffic Channels are used by individual users during their actual calls to transmit traffic from a single mobile station to one or more base stations. 3.9 POWER CONTROL IN CDMA Power control ensures that each user in the network receives and transmits just enough energy to convey information while causing minimal interference to other users. For the WCDMA standard, power control is applied in both the uplink and downlink. Power control helps to reduce co-channel interference, increasing the cell capacity by decreasing interference and prolonging the battery life by using a minimum transmitter power. With appropriate power control, the CDMA offers high capacity in comparison to FDMA and TDMA. Power control also known, as Transmit Power Control (TPC) is a significant design problem in CDMA systems. Power control manages problems mentioned above by constantly controlling the received power of the mobiles and continuously adjust its transmit power in order to achieve some predefined performance level such as SINR (signal to interference noise ratio). 3.9.1 REQUIEREMENT OF POWER CONTROL The transmit power for each user is reduced to limit interference, so, the power control is needed to maintain the required Eb/No (signal to noise ratio) for a acceptable call quality. On both the links the dynamic power control is also required to limit transmitted power as to maintain the quality of link under all conditions, mobile battery life and life span of BTS power amplifiers can be prolonged. To achieve the maximum capacity every users Eb/No should be at minimum level, needed for acceptable channel performance. Chapter 4 PLANNING OF 3G 4.1 CITY PROFILING City profiling in 3g is the same as done in 2G and the area calculations are the same as done earlier. 4.2 Link Budgeting of 3G We have used Cost 231 Hata model for planning of 3G network. The values used are estimated values which are tested in the field practically and are most effective. This model is the most reliable model which is being used in the field till now with some amendments which have been used also. The equation of Cost 231 Hata model is as follows: Calculations of 3G are as follows As the height of mobile station is 1.5m a(hm) becomes 0. Area of site as calculated in 2G was Now as r = 0.84 Number of BTS required The area of Urban as calculated earlier was 136 sq km. so the number of BTS required Number of BTS = 136/1.19 =115 Chapter 5 CHANNEL MODELING OF 4G NETWORKS 5.1 INTRODUCTION OF 4G 4G technology is the very latest and ultra fast technology and it is getting more attention day by day even though this technology is still at its initial stages. 4G technology aims to provide fastest speed to all users, provide data transfer rate up to 100 Mbps while for its stationary users, it aims to the highest speed of 1 Gbps. 4G Technology is basically an extension in 3G technology with more Data rate and services offered in 3G. The expectation in the 4G is the high quality audio and video streaming over Internet Protocol. If 4G implemented correctly, will truly protects global roaming, super high speed connectivity, with transparent user performance on each mobile communications. It allows video conferencing, streaming picture and much more. Some standards for the 4G system include 802.20, WiMAX (802.16), TDD UMTS, HSDPA and future versions of UMTS. 4G is based on OFDM. Other aspects of 4G are smart antennas and adaptive processing. OFDM is designed so that to send data over parallel streams, increasing the amount of information that we can send at a time over CDMA networks. 5.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT As the wireless industry is evolving, it has developed an infrastructure which aims to provide services to the market. But the designing, production of this type of technological infrastructure comes along with high cost. This high cost may push manufacturers from building the whole systems to test the designs. Therefore manufacturers go for different alternatives to avoid high costs; one of the best alternatives is to simulate a real wireless system. A simulation of a wireless system could depend on many different components. A major component of a wireless system simulation is the wireless channel model. Many Different approaches could be used to simulate diverse types of channels and their conditions. The use of channel modeling may rises questions about their validity. This generates a motivation towards the study of these models and the conditions under which they can be used. This part of our project aims to use current methods of modeling Rayleigh Fading Channels, which include common basic concepts and MATLAB simulation. Based on this model, we will be able to analize the models capacity, application areas and correctness for future developments. 5.3 WHAT IS CHANNEL MODELLING? A channel modelling is a mathematical representations of the transfer characteristics of the medium. This model can be based on some underlying physical criterion or it could by fitting the appropriate mathematical or statistical model on the channel behaviour. Most channels modelled are formulated by observing the traits of the received signals for each specific condition. Usually the one that best explains the behaviour of the received signal is used to model the given physical channel. Such analysis reduces our cost of building a complicated system by the reduction of the amount of hardware that has to be developed for assessment. When it comes to theory, models have another advantage in their ability to regenerate a channel for comparison between many different communication strategies, resulting in an exact measure of relative performance. A channel can be modeled by calculating the physical processes which can effect the transmitted signal. The channel is normally modeled by calculating the reflection of every object present in the environment. A channel model can either be digital or analog. Physical and statistical modeling can be combined. In wireless communications the channel is usually modeled by a randomly generated attenuation of the transmitted signal, and later with additive noise. The noise in this model captures the external interference and/or the electronic noise in the receiver. If attenuation is more complex, it describes the time of a signal, to get in through the channel. Measurements or simulations decide the statistics of the randomly generated attenuation. Channel models can be continuous as there is no limit as to how precisely their values can be defined. 5.4 MODULATION The purpose of communication systems is to transmit baseband signals through a channel using electromagnetic waves. In communications, modulation is the process of transmitting a message signal. Modulation is conversion of baseband signals into band pass signals at a frequency that is high as compared to the baseband signals frequency. The band pass signal is known as modulated signal and the baseband signal is known as modulating signal. Device, which performs modulation, known as a modulator and device that inverses the operation, known as a demodulator. Jointly this type of device is called a modem. The parameters that can be changed in modulation are: Frequency Phase Amplitude 5.5 Digital Modulation The problem is to convert digital signals to analogue signal and can be transmitted using a twisted cable pair, via microwave or satellite. Digital modulation is used to transfer digital data over analogue channel. Digital modulation schemes have greater ability to send large amounts of information than analog modulation schemes. That is why digital modulation provides more data capacity, also compatible with digital data services, data security is very high, better quality communications, and quick system availability. There are many factors influencing the choice of modulation technique for a specific use which include: Power efficiency Spectral efficiency Bit error rate (BER) Implementation complexity 5.5.1 TYPES OF DIGITAL MODULATION Frequency shift key modulation(FSK) Amplitude shift key modulation(ASK) Phase shift key modulation(PSK) Binary-phase shift key modulation(BPSK) Quadrature-phase shift key modulation(QPSK) Quadrature amplitude modulation(QAM) 5.5.1.1 FREQUENCY SHIFT KEY MODULATION(FSK) Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is the modulation in which digital information is send through discrete changes in frequency of a carrier wave. The frequency of the carrier is changed, as a function of the modulating signal, which is being conveyed. Amplitude is remains unchanged. Two constant amplitude carriers are used, one for a binary zero, the second one for a binary one. The simplest frequency shift keying used is binary FSK (BFSK). Binary FSK implies using discrete frequencies to send binary information. 1 is called the mark frequency whereas 0 is called the space frequency. 5.5.1.2 AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEY MODULATION (ASK) Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a modulation that shows digital data, as change in the Amplitude of the carrier wave. The amplitude of analog carrier signal, changes according to the bit stream containing frequency and phase constant. Level of amplitude is used to represent binary 0(s) and 1(s). We pursue the carrier signal as an ON or OFF switch. In modulated signal, logic 0 is represented by the absence of the carrier, hence giving ON/OFF operation. Both ASK modulation and demodulation processes are comparatively inexpensive. The ASK technique is also used to send data through optical fibre. The low level shows binary 0, while a higher-amplitude light wave represents binary 1. 5.5.1.3 PHASE SHIFT KEY MODULATION (PSK) Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation technique which transmits data by modulation, or, changing phase of the carrier signal. PSK uses many phases which are finite and each phase is assigned a different scheme of binary bits. Every phase encodes an equal numbers of bit. The demodulator is designed specially for the set of symbols used by modulator, finds the phase and maps the received signal back to the symbol it represents, so it recovers the original data. 1)BINARY PSK BPSK (also known as PRK, Phase Reversal Keying), is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It consists of two phases which are separated by 180 and so they can also be termed 2-PSK. This modulation is the most vigorous of all the PSKs as it takes the highest level of noise and, or distortion to make the demodulator reach incorrect decision. It is only able to modulate at 1 bit/symbol and so is not suitable for high data rate applications if bandwidth is limited. 2)QUADRATURE PSK QPSK (known as quadriphase PSK 4-PSK or 4-QAM), uses four points in the diagram of constellation, equally spaced around a circle. With four phases, QPSK encodes 2 bits/symbol. This can be used to double the information rate as compared to a BPSK system keeping the bandwidths of the signal or can be used to maintain the data-rate of BPSK but with half the bandwidth required. With BPSK, there are many phase ambiguity problems at the receiving end so to avoid it; differentially encoded QPSK is used more often in practice. 5.5.1.4 QUADRATURE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (QAM) Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is used in both an analog and a digital modulation. It uses two analog message signals, by modulating the amplitude of the two carrier waves, which are using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation scheme. These two waves are normally sinusoids and are out of phase by 90 and are called quadrature carriers or components. The modulated waves are added, and the resulting wave is a combination of both amplitude-shift keying and phase-shift keying (PSK). PSK modulators are designed using the QAM principle, but these are not considered QAM as the amplitude of the modulated signal is constant. 5.6 CHANNELS MODELS FOR COMMUNICATION Communication channels refer to the medium through which information is conveyed from a transmitter to a treceiver. 5.6.1 ADDITIVE WHITE GUASSIAN NOISE (AWGN) CHANNEL An AWGN channel adds white Gaussian noise to the signal that passes through it. Additive white Gaussian noise is channel in which the only drawback to communication is the addition of white noise having constant spectral density and a Gaussian distribution of amplitude. This model is not able to support frequency selectivity interference, nonlinearity, fading or dispersion. The AWGN channel is a good model for many satellites but is not good model for most terrestrial links because of multipath and interference. For terrestrial links modelling AWGN is commonly used to create background noise. The relative power of noise an AWGN channel offers is usually described by parameters like Signal-to-noise ratio of each sample. This is the input parameter to the AWGN function in the ratio between Bit energy to noise power spectral density (EbNo). The relationship between EsNo and EbNo, in dB: k = information bits per symbol. 5.6.2 MULTIPATH CHANNEL Signal multipath occurs when the conveyed signal reaches at the receiver through multiple preoperational paths. If there is no line of sight between sender and receiver then multipath is produced from reflection in the environment. Where each path can have a separate phase, delay and doppler shift, attenuation associated with it. Due to signal multipath the received signal has some undesirable properties like signal fading, inter-symbol-interference, distortion etc. The effects of multipath include destructive and constructive interferences and phase shifting of the signal. Two types of Multipath: Discrete: When the signal arrives at the receiver from a limited number of paths. Diffuse: The received signal is better modeled as being received from a very large number of scatterers. 5.6.3 FADING CHANNELS Fading channels in communication are those which experience fading of the signal. Where fading is the change in the signal amplitude over time at the receiver.In wireless systems fading may be due to the multipath propagation called multipath fading or due to shadowing called shadow fading.Due to the loss of signal power overall performance of the system decreases. Fading channel models are used in order to model the effect of transmission of information over a channel. Fading channels are multiplicative-noise channels and result in bursts of errors.The multiplicative nature of the channel means increasing signal power may not yield a proportional improvement in performance. When signals reach at the receiving antenna with traversed different paths, they may combine destructively. This, multipath, phenomenon can induce signal fading. Fading Types: Frequency-Selective: The effects of the channel on the information signal are frequency-dependent Frequency-Nonselective TYPES EXAMPLE OF FADING CHANNELS Rayleigh Fading Ricean Fading 5.6.5 RICEAN FADING CHANNEL Ricean fading is the fading in which the cancellation of the signal is by itself. Rayleigh fading with a strong line of sight is said to have a Ricean distribution and is called Ricean fading. 5.7 TECHNOLOGIES USED IN 4G: ORTHOGNAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING(OFDM) ULTRA WIDEBAND(UWB) MILLIMETER WIRELESS SMART ANTENNAS LONG TERM POWER PREDICTION SHEDULING AMONG USERS ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND POWER CONTROL 5.8 ORTHOGNAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of digital modulation in which a signal is split into several narrowband channels at different frequencies. OFDM is defined as a form of multi-carrier modulation where the carrier spacing is vigilantly selected so that every sub carrier is orthogonal to the remaining sub carriers. Two signals are orthogonal when their dot product is zero. If you multiply two signals together, and if their integral over an interval is zero, then two signals are orthogonal in that interval. Orthogonality can be attained by vigilantly selecting carrier spacing, such as letting the carrier spacing be equal to the reciprocal of the useful symbol period. As the sub carriers are orthogonal, the spectrum of every carrier has a null at the center frequency of each of the other carriers in the system. This results in no interference between the carriers. The major principle of OFDM is to split a high information Stream into a number of lower data-rate streams which are conveyed over a number of subcarriers simultaneously. Because the symbol duration for lower data-rate parallel subcarriers increases, the amount of dispersion in time caused by multi-path delay spread is decreased. The help of introducing a guard time in each OFDM symbol finishes inter-symbol interference almost completely. The symbol is extended in the guard time to avoid inter-carrier interference. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a very important technique for communication over frequency selective channel. By dividing the bandwidth available into orthogonal and non-interfering subcarriers and using a parallel transmission strategy, it gives better immunity to the multipath fading effect of the wireless channel than single-carrier transmission system. OFDM is extensively used in commercial systems such as xDSL modems, and wireless LAN. It is also part of WiMax, and a strong candidate for future wireless cellular systems. Even OFDM multiplexes low data rate sub-streams from a user and divide it to multiple subcarriers, a cellular network uses orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), in which the data streams from different users are multiplexed onto different sets of the subcarriers. 5.8.1ADAVANTAGES OF OFDM Immune to delay spread Symbol duration greater than channel delay spread Needed Guard interval More Resistance to frequency fading Every sub-channel is flat fading More Efficient bandwidth usage 5.8.2DISADVATAGES OF OFDM problem of synchronization errors due to Timing Carrier noise Sampling synchronization Frequency synchronization FFT units needed at transmitter and receiver 5.9 Simulation of Rayliegh Fading in MATLAB We computed the BER for BPSK in OFDM modulation in the presence of Rayeligh fading channel. The equation used to find BER is Rayliegh fading was implemented in MATLAB as a part of our project the simulations results are as follows: Matlab simulation performs the following: Generation of random sequence in binary. BPSK modulation Assigning to multiple OFDM symbols

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Impeachment of President Clinton Essay - 698 Words

James Madison, in writing the US Constitution in 1787, intended that the system of checks and balances would separate the powers of the government branches and counter a â€Å"tyranny of the majority†. He carefully sought to distribute powers in a way that prevents any one faction from dominating. Under this system, the President can appoint federal judges, grant pardons, veto bills, propose laws, reject part of bills, etc. Equally, the Congress can override presidential veto, impeach the President, ratify treaties, etc., and the Courts can declare laws and executive orders unconstitutional. The contemporary system of checks and balances isn’t working as Madison intended as illustrated by the impeachment of President Clinton, the government†¦show more content†¦Furthermore, none of the misconduct associated with President Clinton was an assault on the American form of government. The government shutdown of 1995 was yet another example of how the system of checks and balances wasn’t what Madison intended. In 1994, there was a shift in the control of Congress from Democrats to Republicans, with the intended goal of balancing the federal budget. Here, breaches of inter-branch accommodation occurred and resulted in the 1995 budget shutdown. The Congressional Republicans were threatening to withhold funding from the executive branch unless President Clinton conceded to a series of budget priorities. The power of the purse is given to Congress without any textual limitations that give them the authority to defund the executive branch. The danger in this would be sabotaging the Constitution’s central organizational structure, set up by Madison, that the government comprises of three equal branches. Regardless, the Republicans in Congress remained firm, which caused the two shutdowns of government agencies in 1995.The divided branches and impasse led t o the expiration of federal funding. In 1996, the President and Congress agreed on appropriations for the Fiscal Year. At the time, majority of public opinion favored the President’s position. The illegal arms transfer to Iran was a violation of the checks and balances of the constitution. The crimes of theShow MoreRelatedThe Clinton s Impeachment Of President Clinton947 Words   |  4 Pages1999- Clinton Escapes Impeachment In the year 1998, Clinton was investigated and then accused of improperly using money from the company Whitewater Development and using it to fund one of his previous campaigns. However, what made the public hostile towards Clinton would have to be the discovery that he possibly had an affair with White House Intern, Monica Lewinsky. He even lied about it under a presidential oath on national television, despite their being clear evidence. It was after these twoRead MoreThe Impeachment of President Bill Clinton2014 Words   |  9 PagesThe Impeachment of President Bill Clinton The impeachment of President Clinton is something that will be remembered forever. Along with the fact that a presidential impeachment has only happened one other time since the Civil War, the publicity that came with the Clinton trial was extensive (Miller 2004). While the Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives had vastly different views on impeaching President Clinton, the fact that only five Democratic Representatives voted toRead MorePresident Bill Clinton s Impeachment2515 Words   |  11 PagesRepresentative voted to impeach President Bill Clinton. I remember the news asking people what they thought. The people they asked were divided. The older crowd was for his removal from office and the younger crowd was against it. President Bill Clinton’s impeachment was not the first in American history. The first presidential impeachment was in 1868 when President Johnson had removed the then War Secretary. This was two years after the Tenure of Office Act, which barred the president from removing some majorRead MoreThe Impeachment Proceedings Of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon And William Clinton1514 Words   |  7 Pagescontrast the impeachment proceedings of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon and William Clinton, while identifying the ethical dilemmas presented by each. In addition, students are to categorize the ethical violations of each President by severity and discuss whether the actions by the Senate were politically motivated or ethical. The initial similarity obviously lies in the fact that these three gentlemen belong to a very small club of which they are the only members; Presidents who have beenRead More Overview Of Clintons Impeachment Proceedings Essay1343 Words   |  6 PagesAn Overview of the Impeachment Proceedings of William J. Clinton The impeachment trial of President Clinton originated from a civil lawsuit filed in 1994 by Paula Jones. Jones alleged that in 1991 Governor Clinton asked a state trooper to bring her up to his room at Excelsior Hotel, where she alleged he dropped his trousers and asked her to kiss it (Chronology of the Paula Jones Case, BBC, January, 1998). The case made it to the Supreme Court because of the Presidents request to delay theRead MoreThe Trial Of The White House927 Words   |  4 Pagestestimony, and on August 17 President Clinton testified. Contrary to his testimony in the Paula Jones sexual-harassment case, President Clinton acknowledged to prosecutors from the office of the independent counsel that he had had an extramarital affair with Ms. Lewinsky. In four hours of closed-door testimony, conducted in the Map Room of the White House, Clinton spoke live via closed-circuit television to a grand jury in a nearby federal courthouse. He was the first sitting president ever to testi fy beforeRead MoreEssay on Bill Clinton: A Life of Controversy1396 Words   |  6 Pages Clinton impressed people with the idea of a family man in office. He was focused and charismatic. Better economy was what the American people wanted so that is what his goal was. During his reign he went through more scandals and controversies than any other president. He was impeached, yet despite all, he was loved by America. Our economy prospered and we had better diplomatic relations. The American people wanted change for the better and so they elected William Jefferson Clinton for their forty-secondRead MoreWere The Whitewater Hearings A Persecution By Republicans Or A Justified Inquiry?1675 Words   |  7 Pagesmade it their mission to prosecute Democratic President William Jefferson â€Å"Bill† Clinton for committing real estate fraud known as the Whitewater scandal and his involvement in numerous illicit sex scandals like the Paula Jones lawsuit and the Monica Lewinsky lawsuit t o name a few. The significance of the Whitewater trials and the impeachment of the president is that it served as an example for future presidents and assured the people that the president is subjected to the law, not above it. If heRead MoreBill Clinton : William Shakespeare1142 Words   |  5 PagesRook Welch Mrs. Coker English III 31 March 2016 Bill Clinton William (Bill) Jefferson Blythe IV was born on August 19th, 1946 in Hope, Arkansas. Three months before he was born his father tragically died. When he was only two, his mother left him to live with his grandparents. When she remarried, the family moved to Hot Springs, Ark. In his younger years,, Bill was determined for success. He earned academic honors. This gave him the opportunity to go as a nominee to the American Legion Boys NationRead MoreBill Clinton : William The American Legion Boy s Nation Program1128 Words   |  5 PagesWelch1 Rook Welch Mrs. Coker English III 31 March 2016 Bill Clinton William (Bill) Jefferson Blythe IV was born on August 19th, 1946 in Hope, Arkansas. His father died three months before his birth. When he was only two, his mother left him to live with his grandparents. When she remarried, the family moved to Hot Springs, Ark. In his younger years,, Bill was determined for success. He earned academic honors. This gave him the nomination as a delegate to the American Legion Boy s Nation program

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Christian Of Harry Potter Essay - 2059 Words

The Christian themes in Harry Potter have been undermined by Christian fundamentalists’ beliefs that the Potter stories are a gateway into satanic culture. While these stories are loved by so many, there is a section of the population that condemns them as a satanic welcoming. To fully understand the condemnation of Harry Potter and the push to eradicate this condemnation we will address several lenses of the argument; to start there will be a quick history of the condemnation, and an overview of that specific audiences’ perspective on the novels. Next to be presented will be an overview of the Christian allegories found in the Potter novels, and finally, the argument put forward by some Christians, Christians wishing to reclaim the Harry Potter novels as a quote on quote â€Å"Christian† themed series. J.K. Rowling’s first Harry Potter novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, was first published in the UK in 1997, and was published in the U S in 1998; the movie was then distributed by Warner Bros. in 2001. Even before it’s theatrical release many educators found themselves at odds with the novel due to it’s magical nature. In March of 2000 Carol Rookwood, the head of a Catholic primary school, banned the novel. Her reasoning, â€Å"The Bible is very clear and consistent in its teachings that wizards, devils and demons exist and are very real, powerful and dangerous, and God s people are told to have nothing to do with them† (). This response is similar to many of those whoShow MoreRelatedHarry Potter Vs. Christians Essay1821 Words   |  8 Pagesdreamed of witches, broomsticks and full moon light? I always wished, when I was younger, I could turn and do magic like a witch. I even bought little magic kits, but it was nothing like the magic I wanted to produce. In my teen years, a book called Harry Potter caught my attention. It took me to a world I thought could only belong in my head. J.K. Rowlin g brought words of description to my dreams and brought out the little witch and wizard in many childrens lives. I have not been able to find a moreRead More The Banning of Harry Potter at Omaha Christian Academy Essay3245 Words   |  13 PagesThe Banning of Harry Potter at Omaha Christian Academy Imagine discovering that you’re not an ordinary person, but a wizard with magnificent, magical powers. Imagine attending a school where you’ll study transfiguration and charms instead of trigonometry and chem. Imagine the thrill of flying across the sky on a broomstick. These adventures and many others are waiting to be experienced in Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone by novelist J. K. Rowling. This fanciful and entertaining taleRead MoreHarry Potter And The Deathly Hallows882 Words   |  4 PagesKatrina Anne Winemiller Professor Larissa Purvis English 112 1. November 2014 How Harry Potter and parallels to the Bible As a professional reviewer, Mike Furches reviews Harry Potter in his blog, â€Å"Reviews with Mike Furches: Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows part 1† on blogspot.com. Mike’s concern for the dark, scary aspects of the Harry Potter books led him to research the subject more thoroughly, hoping to point out the reasons children should not be reading them. Because of the social, politicalRead MoreComparison Of CS Lewiss Works and JK Rowlings Works1104 Words   |  5 Pageslives up to expectations, is proportional to giving him/her the finest of instructive chances. It is regular learning that C. S. Lewis is a Christian and much, if not every, of hello there composing is attached to Christianity or philosophy in some structure or way. A regular response to C. S. Lewis Chronicles of Narnia is one of a Christian nature. Lewis is undoubtedly very purposeful in his utilization of imagery in Narnia. What is maybe not as normally known, on the other hand, it isRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Narnia 1679 Words   |  7 Pagesbook and its supposed spread of mysticism to children, â€Å"Narnia† has also been challenged as to not offend non-Christians, similar to how â€Å"Charlotte s Web was challenged as to not offend Muslims. Because Aslan is a Christ-like figure and because of the strong presence of Christian teachings in the books, challengers said that making children read the book in school in unfair to non-Christians. In 2005, Florida Governor Jeb Bush included â€Å"The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe† to his state†™s encouraged-books-to-readRead MoreThe Harry Potter Book Series Written By J.k. Rowling1468 Words   |  6 PagesThe Harry Potter book series written by J.K. Rowling took the world by storm when The Sorcerer’s Stone was released in 1997. Adults, teens, and children around the world read and enjoyed the following six books and movies by buying robes and wands, and waiting patiently in long lines at midnight for the release of the newest films. Harry’s story has been translated into 60 languages and has been so successful that J.K. Rowling was the first person to ever become a billionaire by being a writer. EvenRead MoreHarry Potter and the Religious Right Essay1185 Words   |  5 Pagesseven books in the Harry Potter series are some of the most popular books of all time. Millions of children and adults around the world crave everything to do with Harry. From the midnight book release parties to new movie releases to the new Wizarding World of Harry Potter theme par k, fans, the world over, love Harry and cant seem to get enough of him. While scores of fans immerse themselves in the fantasy world of Harry Potter, there are some people that believe that Harry Potter is the work of theRead MoreHarry Potter And The Lord Of The Rings1449 Words   |  6 Pagesthat represents a far greater meaning. Harry Potter and The Lord of the Rings are dark stories that have a similar concept: save the good from evil. The Lord of the Rings was accepted in the Christian community, unlike the Harry Potter series, undoubtedly because Tolkien publicly claimed Catholicism as a religion. The Lord of the Rings has a more masked Christian allegory, whereas Harry Potter demonstrates similar aspects, but has more Wiccan than Christian ideals to many reluctant readers. TolkienRead More Harry Potter is a Classic Essay1699 Words   |  7 PagesHARRY POTTER—MORE THAN A CONTEMPORARY PHENOMENON What makes a book a classic? What is it about a book that will have generation after generation reading it? English Literature majors could spend hours theorizing the answers to this question. One series of texts that has received publicity and wide-spread acclaim over the past seven years is the Harry Potter collection. J.K. Rowling could never have possibly imagined how her little book about a boy with broken glasses and a scar on his foreheadRead MoreComparing Harry Potter And Charlotte s Web And The Chronicles Of Narnia1583 Words   |  7 PagesThe â€Å"Harry Potter† series, â€Å"Charlotte s Web† and â€Å"The Chronicles of Narnia† series all have something in common: they are beloved, classic books read by children throughout the world. But that’s not the only trait the novels share -- they have also all been challenged by various schools and organizations for religious purposes. â€Å"Harry Potter† and Charlotte s Web† have been deemed blasphemous by some devout religious followers -- the former because it promotes witchcraft and the later because it

Black Feminism Free Essays

Black Feminism â€Å"Feminism in general  is a collection of movements and ideologies aimed at defining, establishing, and defending  equal  political, economic, and social rights for women. † Black Feminism is a strand of feminist thought, which highlights the manifold disadvantages of gender, class and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women. Black feminist organizations emerged during the 1970s and they had to face manifold difficulties from both the white feminist and Black Nationalist political organizations they were confronting with. We will write a custom essay sample on Black Feminism or any similar topic only for you Order Now Black feminists had rejected the idea of a single unified gender oppression that faced evenly by all women, and argued that early feminist analysis reflected the specific concerns of white, middle-class women. One of the theories that evolved out of the Black feminist movement was Alice Walker’s Womanism. Alice Walker and other womanists pointed out that black woman experienced a different and more intense kind of oppression from that of white women. They point out the emergence black feminism after earlier movements led by white middle-class women which they regard as having largely ignored oppression based on race and class. Patricia Hill Collins defined Black feminism, in Black Feminist Thought (1991), as including â€Å"women who theorize the experiences and ideas shared by ordinary black women that provide a unique angle of vision on self, community, and society†. Different critics gave their opinion regarding â€Å"Black Feminism† , some of them tried to justify their stand as the â€Å"Black Feminists†, some elaborated the purposes of this movement, some discussed the themes that work in this theory. They stated such as; Women of color have never been placed on a pedestal and protected the way white women are, and although women of color are thought of as a voiceless people, the stereotypes used to oppress them, â€Å"black matriarch†, â€Å"bitch† and â€Å"sapphire†, contradict that notion (Hudson-Weems 211-213). In establishing why Black Feminism is relevant, it must be established that women of color have been thrice victimized: by racism, sexism and economic exploitation. These three oppressive forces affect women of color simultaneously and equally relentlessly (Gordon 166). Black Feminism is the acknowledgement that women of color have been oppressed by sexism and racism, that there was a failure to recognize and address these issues in the Feminist Movement and the Black Liberation Movement, and that women of color have their own agenda that neither movement can take on. Black Feminism focuses on the experiences needs and desires of women of color (Aldridge 193). The goal of Black Feminism is to create a criterion by which women of color can assess their realities, both in thought and in action (Hudson-Weems 210). Although it is contested that all struggles are the same, placing all women under feminism is the epitome of racist arrogance and domination, suggesting that white women’s experience is the standard and authority above any other experience (Hudson-Weems 209). Basically three characteristic themes are found in Black Feminist thought: †¢ Black women’s self-definition and self-valuation; †¢ The interlocking nature of oppression; and †¢ The importance of Afro-American women’s culture. We find the themes of Black Feminism like repression of women, self actualization, self-definition, self-valuation, political suppression and kind of racial, class and gender biases towards the women of Black race, in the stories of â€Å"Lice†, â€Å"Veil† and â€Å"Independence Day†. â€Å"Lice† is really a true illustration of deprivation of women because of their gender, kind of gender oppression and the stereotypical view of women in Black community that women are only to get married, have sex, and to devote their whole life for the family. There is a woman in the story, named â€Å"Sissie† a â€Å"voiceless creature†, as stereotypical view of Black Feminism is. In the Black community it is considered that if you are a woman you just have to perform certain roles other than that you have no identity of your own, as in the story the condition of sissie in Black community truly explained this stereotype â€Å"an ordinary wife with a normal marriage, ignored, double-timed, a harassed mother, a low paid teacher in a rotten third world education system. Black women have no personal identity without the male entity, as the words of sisse’s mother when sissie is going to married â€Å"Now our daughter has become a proper lady†. ith marriage comes a lot of responsibilities and she is left with no self-identity and have to behave like a Lady and then her mother thinks like a typical mother that she must stop calling her daughter ‘baby’ now because ‘†¦she was a grand old lady of five years’. In her autobiography â€Å"Anne Moody†, brings the idea of black feminism into account, stating, â€Å"We we re told in the same breath to be quiet both for the sake of being ‘ladylike’ and take us less objectionable in the eyes of white people. † She is deprived of her wants and needs but in this situation as well her mother advises her to ‘remember counting her blessings’. She is having a husband who is legally and fully married to her but most of the time’ she also knows without looking that her husband was not occupying his side of the bed’’. She has no right to ask her husband because she is supposed to handle the households, not to look into the doings of her husband. As it is against the norms of patriarchal society, in which she is living. The depravity of the Black women also proves in the fact that their marriages are dependent on their pregnancies â€Å"Their marriages depended on it. Their feminity. Their humanity. † Third phase which depicts the darker aspect of black feminism is that of sexual oppression. Women are sexually harassed by male, as in the story Sissie is representative of the working women community, that how her Boss demanded sexual favor as a substitute for her promotion. Another blessing is mentioned that it is Saturday, which means no school but this Saturday means nothing for her as she has much to do at home on the free day, because there is no concept of rest for a woman even on the holiday. There is a car in her house which is her husband’s. She has no right regarding the car in spite of having investment in the car. Here again comes one of the major themes of Black Feminist thought that is of self valuation that a woman has no self possession. The very title of the story â€Å"Lice† is symbolic in the sense that apparently lice are in her daughter’s hair but symbolically these are the parasites that Black women have in their life in the form of biases, gender subjugation and typical concept about women as small creatures. â€Å"The Veil† refers to the theme of realization, self actualization in the Black feminism theory. It is the realization of woman after the real experience of having sex. The story is based on relationships and is being told by a woman that how a woman presuppose about having sex as an enjoyable activity but later on she realizes the truth that this enjoyment doesn’t last for long and at the end there remains nothing. Basically this story embodies the objectification of women and glorification of sex but sudden realization of the true fact, which is an important concept in Black Feminism that women of Black race starting realizing or identifying the things. As â€Å"His eyes are the only part of his body with which I have real contact. They dispel strangeness and ugliness and make my relationship with him real in the midst of numerous unreal ones† it is because in the beginning they used to spend time talking and sharing their interests and wants and this communication was carried out through eye contact as well as it was ‘a sort of meeting of minds, and gratifying’ but this relationship now lacks communication that’s what makes them feel strangers to each other and a number of questions arise in her mind that ‘whether it was the body’s desire for contact with another body? And this idea gives vent to ‘a violent desire’ to find out how ‘the meeting of my body with his could be like’. This lust for the fulfillment of bodily desires ‘draws me into loveless contacts simply in order to satisfy that curiosity’ and she experiences a kind of repulsion between their bodies except ‘in one situation – that of love. ’ Then she thinks about the cause behind this repulsion and comes to know that ‘man worships his masculinity, so woman repulses him’ and the only way to get rid of this repulsion is ‘the victory of love over the male deity’ but she has no idea what it is and once again she is encountered by certain thoughts such as ‘Is the relationship between us love? ’ and ‘s love simply a fairy tale,†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ but suddenly a bitter realization stuck in her mind that ‘All the fairy tales come to an end and the veil fell from each of them. and ‘each time a veil fell,†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ she cries for ‘the beautiful illusion which was lost. ’ Then there comes a time when they both are having sex she notices that his body reveals ‘strength, youthfulness, cleanliness and good eating’ but later on when he is dressed and getting ready to leave ‘his face looks tired, as though he’s suddenly grown old and weary. à ¢â‚¬â„¢ She experiences mixed ‘feelings of joy mingle with strange feelings of sadness’ as the man has left her alone once again. When ‘the effect of wine has gone and the veil has lifted from my eyes’, she looks into the mirror as â€Å"I am about to walk away from the mirror, like every other time, to trample on the fallen veil at my feet and stamp on it with new found strength. But this time I do not leave my place. I bend down, pick up the veil from the ground and replace it once again on my face†. The story is all about the feelings of a woman that how she feels when the fantasy world or the glorified picture of having sexual pleasure turned into the reality. A veil of illusion is now dropped away from her eyes. But at the end of the day, she has to put up that veil over her face and pretend to be like as usual, because she is anticipated to behave like this. The story ‘Independence Day’ written by â€Å"Yvonne Vera† is a representation of political suppression of women of Black Color. This story refers to the variations in definition of independence according to men and women. In the story there is a man who is watching Independence celebrations on television and he decides that ‘he was going to celebrate Independence properly; with cold beer and a woman. On the other hand, the celebrations are going on ‘the Prince and the new Prime Minister walked to the large flag pole in the middle of the stadium. ’ it is midnight and on one hand it is ‘the magic time of change’ whereas on the other side, the man is busy having sex with that prostitute. The whole country got independence but what about the woman who is still the slave of others and has to live her life the way she is told to. Although they were going to enter in a new era but it makes no difference for the women because there are specific boundaries settled by men for her, which is not allowed by the society to cross anyway. In short, we see that the black feminist movement had to contend with civil rights movements that wanted women in a lesser role. Men  believed the black women would organize around their own needs and minimize their own efforts, losing reliable allies in the struggle for civil rights. The black feminist movement not only had to compete with racial prejudice but also the structure of our patriarchal society, making their struggle much harder. How to cite Black Feminism, Papers

How is Tess seen to suffer in Tess of the Durbervilles Essay Example For Students

How is Tess seen to suffer in Tess of the Durbervilles Essay Tess undergoes immense suffering, throughout the whole novel. This is very well displayed by Thomas Hardys excellent usage of language. He expertly describes Tesss actions and language. Hardy also vividly describes what Tess feels and other peoples behaviour towards her. The very first case of suffering starts when Tess had to get up extremely early in the morning to take the hives to market. Tess had to light the lantern on the cart and drive to market. Tess was exhausted. This is the first example of physical suffering that Tess undergoes in the novel. Tess was so tired that she actually fell asleep whilst driving the cart. Tess was woken by a sudden jerk. She realized that she had been asleep for some time and she had travelled a fair way down the road. Tess found that the cart was on the wrong side of the road, and that the cart had stopped. There was a low groaning sound coming from her horse, Prince. He had been wounded very badly and as a result of this, he later died. This is where Tesss emotional suffering began. Tess felt very upset and felt she was entirely to blame. Her face was described as being dry and pale and her little bother asked is he gone to heaven? Tess regarded herself a murdereress. The next case of suffering occurs when Tess meets Alec Durberville for the first time. Tess feels out place here, as she feels inferior to him. Hardy shows this by describing Tesss sense of ludicrousness in her errand and he tells of how Tess is in awe of Alec. This makes Tess feel very uncomfortable. Tess had gone to the Durbervilles house to claim kin, as she belonged to a poor family and were seeking financial support and a better way of life. Tess feels very uneasy and uncomfortable when facing that situation, as she thinks that Alec Durberville will look down on her because she is of a different class to him. Tess was not too keen to go in the first instance and she was embarrassed to be telling him the reason that she had come. She tells him how she feels it is so very foolish. This is another example of Tesss emotional suffering. Following on from the first meeting, Tess had another encounter with Alec Durberville. This next meeting occurred near the home of Tess and her family. A cart had been sent to pick Tess up, as she was going to work for Mrs Durberville. When the cart came for Tess, she mounted the cart that Alec had brought instead. Hardy describes how Tess would have preferred the humble cart, as she would rather be treated like a poor woman instead of being treated as a rich lady. This indicates how humble Tess is and that she does not want to accept any special treatment from her new found kin. Tess shows pride to be who she is. Alec mounted the cart beside Tess and drove rapidly over the crest of the first hill. Along the way, Alec showered Tess with compliments, which made her feel rather uncomfortable and slightly intimidated, such as calling her a brave bouncing girl and my beauty. He embarrasses her by asking let me put one little kiss on those holmberry lips Ever since the accident with her fathers horse and cart, Tess had become exceedingly timid on wheels, the least irregularity of motion startled her. Tess then began to feel rather uneasy at Alec Durbervilles reckless driving. .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c , .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .postImageUrl , .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c , .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c:hover , .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c:visited , .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c:active { border:0!important; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c:active , .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7bad1ca47dcf6be4b28acfe6f22d294c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Handmaids Tale EssayTess shows her nervousness by asking Alec questions, such as You will slow down, sir, I suppose? It is here that Alec starts teasing Tess by saying things like, why I always go down at full gallop and theres nothing like it for raising your spirits. Alec seemed to take great pleasure in making Tess feel uncomfortable and embarrassed. Alec liked to tease and frighten Tess. They continued on their journey and the faster the cart bumped along, the more scared Tess became. Tess grabbed on to Alec, as she was scared that she might fall out of the cart. When the cart had eventually slowed down and Alec mentioned to Tess that she was still holding his arm, she removed her hand immediately and felt very embarrassed. She then refused to hold onto him again. As the cart went faster, her hat blew off. Tess went to fetch her hat. She felt uneasy, and Alec was not kind to her as he found this highly amusing. Tess then refused to remount the cart and sit beside him. She told him no; I shall walk. Alec replied tis 5 or 6 miles yet to Trantridge, to which Tess replied I dont care if tis dozens. Alec Durberville became very annoyed at this and started to curse and swear at Tess. Tess by now had had enough and cried out with great spirit which was unusual for Tess. She said to Alec, I hate and detest you! She also threatened to return home to her mother. Upon witnessing her temper, Alec laughed at Tess, which made her feel upset and slightly embarrassed although most of all she was angry with him. The next episode of great emotional suffering happens much later on, when Tess wishes to confess to Angel of her past and wishes to confess the incident that happened with Alec Durberville. After her confession, Tess was brave and did not weep. She then despairs and asks Angel to forgive her. He cruelly replies, you were one person; now you are another. At this, he broke into horrible laughter. This made Tess very upset as she did not know what he was thinking. He was also very harsh in saying, the woman I have been loving is not you, it is another woman in your shape. Tess by now, was very distressed at Angels reaction and she was left in a state of suspense and confusion as he left the room. Tess tried pleading with Angel, arguing that she was merely a child when it happened and that she knew nothing of men. Tess asked if Angel could forgive her, to which he replied that he would. However when asked by Tess if he still loved her, he did not reply. Tess then continues to argue her case, but Angel silenced her. Tess felt helpless and miserable, as she felt that Angel was being highly unreasonable. This is an example of great emotional suffering in the novel, as Tess could not help Angels reaction. Another example of immense suffering occurs at Flintcomb-Ash, whilst Tess was working at the threshing machine. Hardys use of language here is excellent, as he vividly describes the threshing machine as a red tyrant and a cruel leader. This displays the suffering well. Hardy also tells how the women serve the machine. The word serve implies that the machine somehow has control over them. Hardy tells of how the machine keeps up a despotic demand upon the endurance of their muscles. This displays great physical suffering and the reader can almost picture the scene in their head. Further on, there is also an example of the poor working conditions and the long hours which Tess had to work. This is helped by the description of a hasty lunch. It emphasises the hurrying and the urgency and rush of work. It also shows that they had to eat in the dirty surroundings of the machinery. They worked in awful conditions. Another example of awful working conditions is shown, by describing how workers were stood near the revolving wire cage. This is very dangerous and there were no safety guards on any of the machines. .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc , .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .postImageUrl , .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc , .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc:hover , .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc:visited , .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc:active { border:0!important; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc:active , .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u69ca5878ebb80b8dfe295ed2f73666dc:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf EssayTess was exhausted at the end of every working day and Hardy shows this by using good descriptive phrases such as, for Tess there was no respite. Hardy also uses strong adjectives in his sentences, for example, when he described Tess as being too utterly exhausted to speak louder. As you can see, this novel is full of both physical and emotional suffering, throughout Tesss whole life and these were only a few examples. I think that Hardy successfully and vividly describes Tesss life with great emotion.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Changing Role and Key Skills to Be Acquired-Myasssignmenthelp.Com

Question: What Is the My Changing Role and Key Skills to Be Acquired? Answer: Introducation: I am working for an apparel manufacturing company, EthnicCharisma, dealing in personalized fashion garments, essentially for women. We have only two outlets in the Dubai and we cater mostly to the local buyers including tourists. At present several tourists buy traditional scarves and garments as souvenirs for their families back at home. However our focus is not on exports. At present we are making moderate sale especially during the winters. Our company focuses on brick and mortar based point of sales rather than e-commerce. Also the tastes are changing and hence competition from online transactions is increasing becoming our threats. Key factors for success of firms in textile segment UAE is one of the key textile markets globally and was worth USD13 billion in 2011. The apparel and footwear segments went through slow growth compared to 2015. This is due to falling prices of oil and gold since 2014. The retailers are coming up with innovative offers in order to compensate the situation and maintain some kind of positive growth (Euro Monitor International, 2017). The pressure is higher due to slowing economies, budget constraints and salary cuts. So the key factor is innovative ways of marketing and adapting to changing westernized tastes and preferences. Also the more the firm can diversify the better. Companys present status In my company where I mainly look after the marketing and customer relations, the focus is essentially on traditional womens wear. They are presently contemplating diversification into kids and mens wear. However I personally think that instead of considering garments, the venture could stream into gems and jewelries or accessories like bags and designer watches. The products should also match the changing tastes and be knitted into more fashionable light and close fit garments instead of loose and heavy work ethnic embroideries. Change drivers and their impact The first change driver would be the marketing department. Also a research team might be required in order to carry out some market survey to know the tastes and preferences from potential customers feedbacks. I also believe the companys presence in social media and e-commerce is essential. All these aspects can help in improving the ways of marketing. All these would require proper training, fresh hiring of young and technical people. Skills should be upgraded. Company can hire a professional fashion designer if required. So leaders change related action, change-related training and aligned human resources practices are the key change drivers (Whelan-Berry and Somerville, 2010). This will obviously take its toll on the cost burden but the investment should pay off in long term. Some of the old staff might feel vulnerable and at risk. The company needs to figure out some ways of using the old people as well instead of wasting too much time training them. Other companies might take ad vantage of this disturbance if the change is not managed well and attempt to takeaway our market share. This is the main threat. Maintaining consumers confidence in the face of rising international brands like HM, Zara, Next and Matalan is a major challenge but the new strategies should also bring more opportunities to cater to the global market now (Euro Monitor International, 2017). This will be a phase of proactive change which could be difficult as well as an opportune change process for us (Nadina, 2011). My changing role and key skills to be acquired My role would perhaps shift from more talking to more typing and less talking. There is a chance that I will need to develop content for marketing through social media. The website needs to be developed attractively. I may need to get involved in some market research before launch of new product line for men and kids. Also its will be important to play as the linkage between customers and the designers and tailors. Changed behaviors by the end of the module for improvements By the end of the module I expect to be able to apply the theories to practice. In fact I am already associating the theoretical terms more commonly relevant to the business I am familiar with. I also believe I will be more tolerant and confident in dealing with consumers. It is at times important to think like the owners in order to perform better. One needs to expect the worst and work for the best. Keeping a backup plan is very important to face drastic changes. I should be able to do this more efficiently as the module ends. References Euro Monitor International, (2017), Apparel and Footwear in the United Arab Emirates, Country Report. Retrieved from: https://www.euromonitor.com/apparel-and-footwear-in-the-united-arab-emirates/report Nadina, R.R.(2011). METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AS BEING OPPORTUNE, West University of Timioara, Retrieved from: https://ideas.repec.org/a/ora/journl/v1y2011i2p707-712.html Whelan-Berry, K.S. and K.A. Somerville, (2010), Linking Change Drivers and the Organizational Change Process: A Review and Synthesis, Journal of Change Management, 10( 2), 175 193