Saturday, August 31, 2019
Poverty affects many people Ã¢â¬Å"with over three billion living on less than two dollars and fifty cents a dayÃ¢â¬ (Shah). The majority of the parents living in poverty are unable to provide for themselves and let alone able to feed their children, send them to school, get them the medical attention they need, or even provide them with shelter (Ã¢â¬Å"What is Poverty? Ã¢â¬ ). Since parents can not properly provide for their kids, it causes Ã¢â¬Å"twenty-two thousand children to die each day due to povertyÃ¢â¬ . South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are the areas most affected by poverty even though it is in every continent, country, and city around the world (Shah).This large poverty problem is a global issue that could be changed into a much smaller one, or even an inexistent problem, by implementing a few different solutions. One way to end poverty is by investing in children. This means to mainly focus on their education, especially when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re young. Boteach talks ab out how President Obama has an idea to create a Ã¢â¬Å"universal pre-K that would provide millions of parents with a quality, reliable place for their children to thrive, enabling them to work more or steadier hours to bring additional income into the family, as well as create greater economic opportunity for their children in the long termÃ¢â¬ .In doing this, it would help these children obtain a proper education that can lower poverty at a high rate since children are the ones most affected by it. With the correct education they can grow up and learn to live a life of non-poverty unlike their parents who may have not of had the chance to obtain a proper education (Boteach). Children living in poverty are unable to control their life. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re vulnerable because theyÃ¢â¬â¢re at the will of others and they sometimes demean themselves to make ends meet (Ã¢â¬Å"Invest in ServicesÃ¢â¬ ). So they deserve to be invested in for their future and their well being.Investing in ch ildren can reduce the poverty rate in tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s world. Another way to end poverty would be to make a world-wide minimum wage law. Why? People live in poverty mostly because they can not make enough money to support themselves or their family. Very rarely is it because people are lazy or donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a job (Shah). Why is there still so many people living in poverty if they have jobs? Poverty is mainly caused by too low of minimum wages because Ã¢â¬Å"the leading cause of hunger and homelessness is low-paying jobsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Universal Living WageÃ¢â¬ ).Most countries do already have a minimum wage, but they are usually not high enough to support a family in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. The United States is a good example of this because Ã¢â¬Å"under current law, a full-time worker with two children earning the minimum wage will still raise his or her family in povertyÃ¢â¬ (Boteach). This is unacceptable because most employers will pay their workers minimum wage if they can get away with it. And anyone working deserves to not have to live in poverty no matter where they live or what job they do. So there needs to be a world-wide, minimum wage law made.It needs to state that every country has to make a high enough minimum wage that would not allow anyone to live in poverty if they worked a normal forty-hour week. They need to be able to afford essential clothing, nutrition, utilities, medical care, and shelter (Ã¢â¬Å"Universal Living WageÃ¢â¬ ). So making a world-wide minimum wage law would help reduce poverty. Making sure everyone has access to the proper energy is another solution to end poverty. The people living in third-world countries that are poverty stricken, is mainly due to not having access to energy needed to live day in and day out.Without them having access to the proper electricity they have to work much harder in their lives because they do not have access to running water, lights, heat, refrigeration, air-conditioning, plumbing, stoves, and many other things that most people take for granted. They also struggle not having the proper energy because it affects their ability to get a decent education or earn a nice living or even just trying to keep themselves healthy is an everyday struggle for them.It is physically impossible and too expensive to make sure every square inch of this earth and everyone has access to electricity though. So the solution would be to work with communities to develop renewable energy technologies. These technologies would use natural resources such as water, wind, sun and wastes so they could work in even the smallest or most remote communities and not cost very much to build or maintain (Ã¢â¬Å"Powerful Solutions to PovertyÃ¢â¬ ). Making sure everyone has access to the proper energy needed to live life easily would really help reduce poverty.Investing in children would help end poverty in tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s world. If children were given the chance to get a proper education it wou ld create a greater economic opportunity for everyone in the long term. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"every year that we keep children in poverty, it costs our nation, United States, half a trillion dollars in lost productivity, poorer health and increased crime,Ã¢â¬ so if children got a proper education, it would boost the economy, raise health, end a lot of crime and reduce the costs by trillions (Ã¢â¬Å"Ending Child PovertyÃ¢â¬ ).It would also lead to outcomes such as better high school graduation rates, higher worker productivity, and lower rates of violent crime that revenue seven dollars in savings for every one dollar invested upfront in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s early education (Boteach). This is a realistic solution because The Early Learning Challenge Fund is investing one billion dollars per year in challenge grants to build high-quality early learning systems for children from birth through age five (Ã¢â¬Å"Investing in Early Childhood to Reduce Child PovertyÃ¢â¬ ).Investing in chi ldrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education from an early age can help reduce poverty to a lower rate. Making a world-wide minimum wage law would reduce poverty drastically. If they raised the minimum wages and indexed them to the cost of living, it would increase the wages of millions of low-wage workers, and create demand in the economy for goods and services as workers spend their increased wages in local businesses (Boteach). For example, if the United States were to raise Ã¢â¬Å"the minimum wage to fifteen dollars an hourÃ¢â¬ then that Ã¢â¬Å"would inject about four hundred and fifty billion dollars into the economy each yearÃ¢â¬ .It would give more purchasing power to many poor and lower/middle class Americans, so therefore stimulate buying, producing, and hiring. Also, the Economic Policy Institute has done studies that prove raising the minimum wage to fifteen dollars would benefit sixty-four percent of the workforce, eighty-one million people, and therefore their families would no longer have to live in poverty and then they would be able to buy more clothing, new cars, and food from the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s businesses (Hanauer). Imagine if every country made a minimum wage and made it high enough to do the same as if it would for the United States.Every countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy would be booming and many people could live a better life therefore benefiting the countries in several ways. People would no longer need to use tax payer programs such as food stamps or Medicaid, and then the countries could use that tax money to get out of debt or for other reasons. The United States alone could save a lot of money and get out of some debt since Ã¢â¬Å"according to the Congressional Budget Office, the federal government spent three hundred sixteen billion dollars on programs designed to help the poor in 2012Ã¢â¬ (Hanauer).This is a realistic solution to poverty. Many minimum wage paying jobs are employed by franchises that make billions of dollars a year and still pay their workers nothing. These franchises and companies can and should have to pay their workers a higher minimum wage. Businesses would be responsible to pay the increase to their workers but it is their responsibility to employ and pay them fairly. Making a high, world-wide minimum wage law would help end poverty. Making sure everyone has access to the proper energy is a good solution to end poverty.Having the proper energy resources is important to any area because a Ã¢â¬Å"modern energy supply is foundational for economic developmentÃ¢â¬ (Pielke). This is a very realistic solution. In most poverty stricken areas it is impossible to get electricity. So the solution is to work with communities to develop renewable energy technologies. The organization Practical Action is a charity that does just this. They are funded completely by donations and have worked with poor women, men, and children all over the world helping make their lives better.So if they got enough donations, they could end poverty in many third world countries that donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the access to electricity. They could do this because of their renewable energy technologies that they invent, build, and distribute. They are always looking for ways to better their inventions and ways to help out the people more (Ã¢â¬Å"Powerful Solutions to PovertyÃ¢â¬ ). Giving everyone access to the proper energy they need can reduce poverty rates. Poverty is a sad thing because it affects every part of these peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life.It affects their health, learning, jobs, raising their families, and just everyday activities that should be simple. That is why there is a great need to do something to end poverty. Whether the world works together to invest in children and their education, or to make a high, world-wide minimum wage, or to make sure everyone has access to proper energy, the world will have less poverty. Everyone needs to stand and work together to make these solutions work. If everyone acts on them all , we could end poverty completely, so take a stand today and end the suffering for millions of adults and children all over the globe.
Friday, August 30, 2019
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Ã¢â¬â ROLE OF BOARD OF DIRECTORS People often question whether corporate boards matter because their day-today impact is difficult to observe. But, when things go wrong, they can become the center of attention. Certainly this was true of the Enron, Worldcom, and Parmalat scandals. The directors of Enron and Worldcom, in particular, were held liable for the fraud that occurred: Enron directors had to pay $168 million to investor plaintiffs, of which $13 million was out of pocket (not covered by insurance); and Worldcom directors had to pay $36 million, of which $18 million was out of pocket.As a consequence of these scandals and ongoing concerns about corporate governance, boards have been at the center of the policy debate concerning governance reform and the focus of considerable academic research. Because of this renewed interest in boardsmuch of the research on boards ultimately touches on the question Ã¢â¬Å"what is the role of the board? Ã¢â¬ Possible answers range from boardsÃ¢â¬â¢ being simply legal necessities, something akin to the wearing of wigs in English courts, to their playing an active part in the overall management and control of the corporation.No doubt the truth lies somewhere between these extremes; indeed, there are probably multiple truths when this question is asked of different firms, in different countries, or in different periods. So what is a Board of Director (BoD) and what do Directors actually do? Ã¢â¬Å"A Board of Directors is a body of elected or appointed members who jointly oversee the activities of a company or organization. Other names include board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, and board of visitors.It is often simply referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëthe boardÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ . A board's activities are determined by the powers, duties, and responsibilities delegated to it or conferred on it by an authority outside itself. These matters are typically detailed in the cou ntryÃ¢â¬â¢s company law, organization's bylaws and/or the Article of Association (AoA). The bylaws commonly also specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, and when they are to meet. To better understand corporate boards, one should begin with the question of what do directors doÃ¢â¬â¢? Over the years there has been several indepth studies conducted and research literature published by some of the most brilliant academics only to answer this very question e. g. Mace, 1971, Whisler, 1984, Lorsch and MacIver, 1989, Demb and Neubauer, 1992, and Bowen, 1994 and their conclusions are presented breifly: The principal conclusions of Mace were that Ã¢â¬Å"directors serve as a source of advice and counsel, serve as some sort of discipline, and act in crisis situationsÃ¢â¬ .The nature of their Ã¢â¬Å"advice and counselÃ¢â¬ is unclear but Mace suggests that a board serves largely as a sounding board for the CEO and top management, occasionally providing exp ertise when a firm faces an issue about which one or more board members are expert. Yet Demb and NeubauerÃ¢â¬â¢s survey results find that approximately two-thirds of directors agreed that Ã¢â¬Å"setting the strategic direction of the companyÃ¢â¬ was one of the jobs they did. 80% of the directors also agreed that they were Ã¢â¬Å"involved in setting strategy for the companyÃ¢â¬ . 5% of respondents to another of Demb and NeubauerÃ¢â¬â¢s questionnaires report that they Ã¢â¬Å"set strategy, corporate policies, overall direction, mission, visionÃ¢â¬ . Indeed far more respondents agreed with that description of their job than agreed with the statements that their job entailed Ã¢â¬Å"oversee[ing], monitor[ing] top management, CEOÃ¢â¬ (45%); Ã¢â¬Å"succession, hiring/firing CEO and top managementÃ¢â¬ (26%); or serving as a Ã¢â¬Å"watchdog for shareholders, dividendsÃ¢â¬ (23%). According to Epstein and Roy (2006), a high performance board must achieve three core objective s; in other words Epstein and Roy nail the core responsibilities of the board: . Provide superior strategic guidance to ensure the company's growth and prosperity by Setting of Strategy: 2. Ensure accountability of the company to its stakeholders, including shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, regulators and community; 3. Ensure that a highly qualified executive team is managing the company by The Hiring, Firing and Assessment of Management. Apart from what has been stated above one very significant and active role played by the board is in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"the hiring, firing, and assessment of managementÃ¢â¬ .This is one role that is typically ascribed to directors is control of the process by which top executives are hired, promoted, assessed, and, if necessary, dismissed. Assessment can be seen as having two components, one is monitoring of what top management does and the other is determining the intrinsic ability of top management. The monitoring of managerial action s can, in part, be seen as part of a boardÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to be vigilant against managerial malfeasance. It is essential that the role, duties and responsibilities of directors are clearly defined.The Combined Code (2006) states that Ã¢â¬Å"the boardÃ¢â¬â¢s role is to provide entrepreneurial leadership of the company within a framework of prudent and effective controls which enables risk to be assessed and managedÃ¢â¬ . According to UK Law, the directors should act in good faith in the interest of the company, and exercise care and skill in carrying out their duties. The Company Law Reform Bill (2005) defines, in section 154-161, the directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ duties as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to act within powers, that is, to act in accordance with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution and only exercise powers for the purpose for which they are conferred; a duty to promote the success of the company, so a director must act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to exercise independent judgment; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to exercise reasonable care, skill and diligence; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to avoid conflicts of interest; Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty not to accept benefits from third party Ã¢â¬ ¢ a duty to declare an interest on proposed transactions or arrangements. But that does not quite answer our cardinal question as to Ã¢â¬Ëhow the role the board plays is related to the overall corporate governance of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢.Nevertheless one thing is certain thus far is that the BoD lead and control a company and hence an effective board is fundamental to the success of the company. The board is the link between managers and the investors, and is essential to good corporate governance and investor relations. Since corporate governance represents the value framework, the ethical framework and the moral framework under which business decisions are taken; it therefore calls f or three factors: 1. Transparency in decision-making; 2. Accountability which follows from transparency because responsibilities could be fixed easily for actions taken or not taken, and; . The accountability is for the safeguarding the interests of the stakeholders and the investors in the organization. Decisions relating to board composition and structure will be of fundamental importance in determining whether, and to what extent, the board is effective and successful in achieving these objectives. A board will typically be composed of a Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, Executive Directors, Non- Executive Director, Independent Director, Company Secretary and then there are committees made from among the board for specific purposes with a view to increased corporate governance and hence accountability.It is important that the board has a balanced composition both in terms of executive and non executive directors and also in terms of experience, qualities and skills that individu als bring to the table. The Institute of Directors (IoD) has published some useful guidance in this area in 2006 which is shared below: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consider the ratio and number of executive and non executive directors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consider the energy, experience, knowledge, skill and personal attributes of current and prospective directors in relation to the future needs of the board as a whole, and develop specifications and processes for new appointments, as necessary. Consider the cohesion, dynamic tension and diversity of the board and its leadership by the chairman. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Make and review succession plans for directors and the company secretary. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where necessary, remove incompetent or unsuitable directors of the company secretary, taking relevant legal, contractual, ethical and commercial matter into account. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Agree proper procedures for electing a chairman and appointing the managing director and other directors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify potential candidates of the board, make selection and agree terms of appointment and remuneration.New appointments should be agreed by every board member. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provide new board members with a comprehensive induction to board process, and policies, inclusion to the company and to their new role. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Monitor and appraise each individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, behavior, knowledge, effectiveness and values rigorously and regularly. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify development needs and training opportunities for existing and potential directors and the company secretary. Roles of the board members 1. Chief Executive Officer and ChairmanThe CEO has the executive responsibility for running of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business; on the other hand, the Chairman has responsibility for the running of the board. The two roles should not therefore be combined and carried out by one person Conclusions Corporate governance, and in particular the role of boards of directors, has been the topic of much attention lately. Although this attention is par ticularly topical due to well-publicized governance failures and subsequent regulatory changes, corporate governance is an area of longstanding interest in economics (dating back to at least Adam Smith, 1776).Because of corporationsÃ¢â¬â¢ enormous share of economic activity in modern economies, the extent to which corporations deviate from value-maximization is extremely important. Consequently, corporate governance and the role of boards of directors is an issue of fundamental importance in economics. Understanding the role of boards is vital both for our understanding of corporate behavior and with respect to setting policy to regulate corporate activities.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
In this essay I will aim to demonstrate an understanding of JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Personality Types by describing and evaluating his theory and show how they might be useful in helping me to determine therapeutic goals. I will also look at some of the criticism levelled at JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory,I think this allows the therapist,ie myself to better understand the positive from the negative. I am also of the opinion that detailing JungÃ¢â¬â¢s early years and background play am important role in the overall evaluation. I have particular interest in when Jung met Freud and how this meeting of minds shaped or maybe changed their individual conclusions. I will cover this later in my essay. Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875, in the small Swiss village of Kessewil. His father was Paul Jung, a country parson, and his mother was Emilie Preiswerk Jung. He was surrounded by a fairly well educated extended family, including quite a few clergymen and some eccentrics as well. By the age of just six years old Jung started to learn Latin which started an interest in language and literature, especially ancient literature. Jung read several ancient languages including Ã¢â¬ËSanskritÃ¢â¬â¢ the original Holy Hindu language book. Jung was a distant youth whilst growing up who did not enjoy his schooling years and was not competitive. JungÃ¢â¬â¢s later education was in Basel, Switzerland where he attended boarding school where he found himself the centre of jealous pestering. Carl Jung began to use sickness as an excuse, developing an embarrassing tendency to faint under pressure. Carl JungÃ¢â¬â¢s first career choice was archaeology; Jung went on to study medicine at the University of Basel. Whilst working under the well-known neurologist Krafft-Ebing, he established himself on psychiatry as his career. After graduating, he took a place at the Burghoeltzli Mental Hospital in Zurich under Eugene Bleuler, an expert on schizophrenia. In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach. He also taught classes at the University of Zurich, had a private practice, and invented word association at this time. (internet search) In 1907 Jung met Freud. Freud would be seduced by the esteem and personality of Jung and would soon see in him the spiritual son that could guarantee the survival of psychoanalysis. The unwillingness of Jung towards the Freudian Theory referred to the role of sexuality in the psychic development. In fact Jung on no occasion completely embraced the sexual theory of Freud. From 1912 onwards Jung found himself more and more distant from FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s writings. By abandoning the winding and indirect of Psycho-sexuality, Jung would launch himself in the fields of spirituality and science which was understood by only an initiated few. JungÃ¢â¬â¢s inner world became something for him to study and develop his theories on and during this time Jung evolved the goal of his psychology of individuation, which is the achievement of the self and other guide marks, such as the archetypes, the collective unconscious. JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory stresses the importance of understanding our personal unconsciousness (events, feeling, behaviour patterns that we have buried in our subconscious from our own direct past) and the collective unconscious (patterns, trends, traits, behaviours that all humans have no matter what background or culture have running through our lives). Whereas Freud believed the unconscious was suppressed by the human mind. Jung in the other hand believed the unconscious mind was where the conscious mind had its origins and where our psyche begins or is created from. Balance was the key for Jung, which he believed the balancing of the two sides is what drives us humans Ã¢â¬ËtowardsÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËawayÃ¢â¬â¢ from goals. The foundation of the mind that consisted of the EGO (who we think we are); the SHADOW (the part of us that we deny or do not acknowledge) was developed by Jung. He continued to believe our mind was constantly developing or moving towards our true self (individuation) and this journey was fuelled by natural laws, the principles of opposites, that every aspect of our mind has an opposite force. The principle of equivalence that equal amounts of energy are given to both sides, and the principle of entropy, that everything natural winds down as energy isÃ evenly distributed, eventually with the opposing side blending together creating a harmony. Jung believed that our mindÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage followed a repeating in the Ã¢â¬Ërites of passageÃ¢â¬â¢ for birth, marriage and death, mirrored throughout all cultures and peoples. Jung believed that this drive to move towards a state if harmony or individuation, was fundamentally important to us all. Jung spent a good deal of time and energy on the importance of dreams and getting to understand what their meanings meant to each individual. Jung believed that by understanding the imageries within our dreams weÃ would benefit a better knowledge of ourselves. He indicated that dreams should not be interpreted too accurately, but considered for finding personal meanings in the imaginary or symbolism. Jung also recognised and identified two opposites of personality; 1. INTROVERSION 2. EXTROVERSION Introversion Ã¢â¬â when psychic energy is turned inwards towards our inner world. These people tend to be thoughtful people with reserved natures, preferring their own company and evading large groups, they may be cautious and uncertain, disliking change or new things, they may seemÃ defensive and they like privacy and personal space and spend a lot of time in contemplation. Extreme forms of introversion have similar qualities to autism and some forms of schizophrenia. Extroversion Ã¢â¬â is when the movement of energy is turned outwards towards the outside world. An extroverted person would show interest in the outside world, they will be objective and frank with helpful and easy-going personalities, they like action and people around them, extreme versions of extroverts would be hopeless alone and not able to bear silence or solitude, needing continuous excitement and externalÃ inspiration to prevent boredom or unhappiness. Jung also identified four different functions (attitudes) of the mind; THINKING Ã¢â¬â when a person connects to the world via reason and intelligence. These types will have thinking searching minds, always questioning. They will be good at judging things able to see the origin and results, and will reach logical decisions. They may be open and appear cool and detached emotionally, and will be good at adjusting to new situations. FEELING Ã¢â¬â when a person makes worth decisions about the world based on how they feel about something, putting ideas, points, and issues inÃ order based on how they assess them and not on emotional feelings. Feeling people have a sturdy sense of traditional values and human connection is significant to them as they tend to be warm and creative. SENSATION Ã¢â¬â when a person relies sensory impressions Ã¢â¬â perceptions. These people rely on sensory impressions, how certain things appear, feel and sound. They tend to be mentally and emotionally stable people, taking things at face value, they can be seen as dull and boring which often be easy going and fun, with a calm nature. INTUITION Ã¢â¬â when the world is understood or interpreted in a particularÃ way mainly through the unconscious Ã¢â¬â when people speak of having a hunch, gut feeling or instinct about something, this type of person is conscious of changes. Possibilities can appear distracted or ungrounded; they will get bored of uninterested or boring details which are often not practical. They can be creative and inspirational. Jung believed that a person is essentially an introvert or an extrovert and this remains equally fixed, however, an individual will rely mainly on functioning using one of these four modalities but that opposing function also had an impression on their relationships and behaviour and theseÃ functions may adjust throughout life. e combined two attributes and the four functions to eight different psychological types. Jung understood that most people are a blend of two or more types, and that understanding how your own personality type and that of people around you related to the world would offer a deeper understanding of yourself. For example; bringing you closer to individuation. Jung trusts that we understand and recognised the strengths and weaknesses of our mind; that we would improve and achieve balance. The functions and attitudes are also not fixed with one side of the pairÃ leading, the other becomes unconscious. Jung believed that the unconscious part then finds a way of expressing its hidden self. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s conscious orientation will be towards one of the four functions; the leading or principle function Ã¢â¬â this will decide how you respond to experiences. 1. The dominant or principle function Ã¢â¬â this will determine how you react to experiences. 2. Auxiliary functions Ã¢â¬â mainly conscious. 3. The opposite auxiliary Ã¢â¬â suppressed and partially unconscious. 4. Remaining generally unconscious Jung believed when the conscious function was solid there was a trendÃ for the opposing function to break through into the conscious occasionally in the form of hysteria, phobias and obsessions. He believed in order to achieve balance one must work with the repressed function in therapy which in this case has echoed FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory on repressed feelings and emotions surfacing unconsciously. These combinations of psychological types, Jung formulated into eight types, combining the two attitudes with the four functions; Extroverted and Introverted 1. Thinking Type, 2. Feeling Type, 3. Sensation Type, 4. Intuitive Type The above generalisation was JungÃ¢â¬â¢s way of providing a structure in orderÃ to begin and to understand individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviours and feelings. Although these types are still current they form the basis of personality or psychometric testing (Myers-Briggs) which is still in use today. I believe the significance of this information is that it is an opening point from which to discover and explore our own or clients mind using a structure. Jung maintains that psychological types are mostly inborn and not acquired through lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences. I concur with this belief, However, Jung recognised that personality types were influenced as a child advances through life by factors such as parents and the amount ofÃ influence each parent has over a child, and social factors such as school, peer groups surroundings. Jung also believed problems (mental ill health) arose when external influences forced children into a pattern that goes against the natural energy flow of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mind or psychological type. As with Freud, most of the theories of early pioneers are quite impossible to prove or test due to no scientific way of measuring them. Also the amount of patients used was in very small numbers and little practical work was done. JungÃ¢â¬â¢s work has given foundations to many modernÃ psychologies including theories to develop and explore further and deeper, including words that have been accepted by the modern language. For example; * Psyche * Extrovert * Introvert. * Archetype These are parallels with other great psychologies Ã¢â¬â Freud, as I already mentioned and discussed, and the work of Hans Eysenck a more modern theorist. Eysenck was the first psychologist to make this trait or temperament business into something more mathematical: he gave long lists of adjectives to hundreds of thousands of people and used a special statistics called factor analysis to figure out what factors trait dimensionsÃ carry the most weight. He took results of this work and created a test called the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) instead of making these traits either-or, like Jung did, he saw them as dimensions. His first trait dimension was, like Jung, Ã¢â¬Ëextraversion-introversionÃ¢â¬â¢. But rather than say you were one or the other (an I or an E), he provided you a score on extraversion-introversion. Eysenck based his theories on Galen, an ancient Greek theory which was created around two thousand BC. It is one of the oldest personality theories around. Eysenck added on the two basic dimensions ofÃ temperament (like Jung) and these were based on four types (unscientifically based on the types of fluids he believed were washing around the individuals body) a sanguine type, cheerful, optimistic and easy to be with, choleric, quick, hot tempered and aggressive. A phlegmatic type temperament, slow people who had a tendency to be sad, depressed and have a negative view of the world. Much simpler and much less sophisticated than JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory; Eysenck expands this into three dimensions of personality; 1. Introversion Ã¢â¬â extroversion 2. Neuroticism Ã¢â¬â emotional 3. Stability and psychoticismÃ With five further subdivisions; 1. extroversion 2. agreeableness 3. conscientiousness 4. neuroticism 5. openness The theme of four (opposing) forces repeats throughout cultures and across time, North, South, East and West, Earth, Fire, Wind and Air. In religion(used my own as my example! ) we see recurrences of types, for example; Ã¢â¬ ¢The Father Ã¢â¬ ¢The Son Ã¢â¬ ¢The Holy Ghost or the Virgin Mother Ã¢â¬ ¢The Crone Archetypal images we can recognise and begin to understand. These theories have a degree of objectivity, whilst they may give different labels to the personality types there does seem to be agreement thatÃ you begin to understand individuals if you can assess basic similar categories or repeating personality traits. Like JungÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, and the teachings in the Bible (parables) perhaps these theories have value as a way of forming a framework for us to ask question, and discovering more of ourselves. CONCLUSION Jung believed each personality type or psyche was influenced by another, it is logical to assume that in all human relationships, mainly within an analyst/patient relationship, the analyst may encourage the patient so a subjective conclusion or true individuation may not beÃ achievable. I feel it is important to recognise as Jung did that these types are not fixed and that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality or psyche changes throughout life and that energy flows and fluctuates between the opposing sides of our psyche so we understand that a person does not fit neatly into one of the boxes. Jung created this structure or framework to help work towards understanding of our own psyches and how better to relate to the world and people around us. Understanding how a person or patient feels, reacts and relates is obviously the first step to the beginning to help them. Being able to plan a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s healing journey will be more effectively tailored to them if we have a good understanding of why they think or feel the way they do and help them to understand this too. Jung believed that in order to heal, people need to learn to listen to messages from the unconscious mind, to follow their own path and think independently, and that in order to become a competent analyst you must Ã¢â¬Ëfirst understand yourselfÃ¢â¬â¢ in order to efficiently help a client and to determine therapeutic goals,This is an ongoing journey of self discovery which this course is bringing outÃ in me. BIBLIOGRAPHY Chrysalis Ã¢â¬â Diploma in psychotherapeutic counselling Ã¢â¬â year two Ã¢â¬â Module Three Carl Jung Resources, 2014 http://www. carl-jung. net/ What Freud really said Ã¢â¬â David Stafford-Clark WWW. Philosophy. lander. edu (Internet research) Wikipedia (Internet) Carl Jung Ã¢â¬â Dr. C. George Boeree http://worldtracker. org/media/library/Psychology/Boere Hans Eysenck Ã¢â¬â Dr. C. George Boeree http://worldtracker. org/media/library/Psychology/Boere Introducing Jung a graphic guide Ã¢â¬â Maggie Hyde & Michael McGuinness Personality Types: JungÃ¢â¬â¢s Model of Typology Ã¢â¬â Darl Sharp.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Auditing Maintenance Systems - Essay Example This report contains the description of the steps that were done in the process of maintenance auditing of the plant. It also provides recommendations to increase the output of the plant. The main objective of conducting this audit is to identify and then eliminate the reasons behind the downtime of the plant activities in order to acquire further improvements in performance of the plants. This study is primarily concerned with the evaluation of the cause behind the low income and the low productivity from the H-Acid plant. It includes an assessment of all vital elements of operation, maintenance and production activities as commencing at H-Acid chemical plant which further encompasses minor installations, statutory inspections, management of the work force and other practices. Interviews were taken from all the involved persons who include Plant Manager, Plant Engineer, Planner, Supervisor, Buyer, Operator and Electrician. The study took into consideration all the 14 stages involved in the manufacturing of the final product that is the H-Acid. This study also focuses on the quality of the parts used in the chemical plant. It also highlights the toxic and flammable na ture of the chemicals used in the plant which have caused severe injuries and accidents. Various personnel including Plant Manager, Plant Engineer, Planner, Supervisor, Buyer, Operator and Electrician who are involved in the chemical plant were interviewed in order to assess their point of views on the current output, problems faced by them in carrying out their work, etc.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Antitrust Practices and Market Power - Essay Example Antitrust laws, often known as Ã¢â¬Ëcompetition lawsÃ¢â¬â¢ are norms introduced by the government of U.S. to prevent the consumers from the negativities of rapacious pricing introduced by the potential business giants in market and thereby help in promoting free trading activities in the open economies. This essay will concentrate in the recent antitrust investigation against the giant web searcher Google. The Federal Trading Commission had introduced the antitrust inquiry against Google in October 2012 and recommended the government to completely sue the business giant. Such laws are generally incorporated over firms that exhibit monopolistic or oligopolistic characteristic features. In short, the imperfectly competitive market structures encourage the malpractices and bureaucracies of potential firms in almost all industrial segments. Antitrust investigation is the best combat against such ill practices. The issue of antitrust investigation against Google encompasses the online business industry (Lohr, 2012). Reason for Antitrust investigation against Google The Federal Trading Commission (FTC) augmented pressure in Google for an antitrust investigation and decided to sue the giant web searcher. The company was claimed to manipulate its search results in a way that would facilitate its own products and make the same difficult for its potential rivals in the industry. However, the officials of the company had announced to answer and prove its innocence against any charges imposed by the regulators. FTC has equipped itself with a team which would drag Google to the court if required. Beth A. Wilkinson was the legislator appointed by FTC to fight against Google in the court. The European Union Commissioner have also claimed that Google is monopolizing the online industry and forcing other specialized search engines and advertizes to foreclose their businesses. Google has also been accused for manipulating its e-commerce services results. It is also found tha t Google introduces lobbying affairs with smart phone makers and force them not to remove the Google android operating systems from their manufactured phones. The American Antitrust Institute (AAI) has also agreed to the claims of FTC made against Google. This case is a typical case of antitrust exploration that has been prerequisite because the firm concerned (Google) simply enjoys oligopolistic or monopolistic power in the digital market places (Cleland, 2013). Pecuniary and Non Pecuniary Cost due to Imperfect Competition The monopolistic and oligopolistic firms exist in markets where perfect competition does not exist. The firms in this type of a market structure are not Ã¢â¬Ëprice takersÃ¢â¬â¢ but are Ã¢â¬Ëprice makersÃ¢â¬â¢. There are a large number of buyers but only few sellers in such market structures. Thus, the existing producers in an imperfect market have power to discriminate the buyers both in social and economic grounds. The demand curve faced by these types o f firms is downward sloping in nature (W. Shepherd & J. Shepherd, 2003). Figure 1: AR and MR Curve of a Monopoly or Oligopoly Producer AR, MR Price or Average Revenue Curve (P or AR) Quantity Marginal Revenue Curve (MR) Antitrust behavior of the firms causes many economic and noneconomic costs. Imperfect competition in the market is responsible for inefficient allocation of resources, the monopolistic and the oligopolistic sellers often hoard their products to artificially increase the prices. Price discrimination is also one of the mal practices
Diabetes - Term Paper Example Diabetes results from the body not being able to produce enough glucose or the inability of the body to use the insulin efficiently. Insulin transfers glucose from blood into the cells for use hence when the glucose level increase in the blood diabetes sets in (Stehouwer & Schaper, 2009). The beta cells of pancreas that is an organ located just below the stomach work to produce insulin hormone. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes results from failure of the pancreas to produce enough insulin into the blood stream. Type 1 diabetes can either result from the pancreas producing less insulin or the insulin from the pancreas being ineffective. This results in accumulation of the glucose in blood. Starvation of the body cells off energy causes diabetes type 2. Normal glucose levels vary with time before eating (fasting levels), random levels, and tolerance test levels of glucose. Blood glucose level during fasting range from 80-90mg/dl, random blood sugar levels range between 80-139mg/dl while the glucose tolerance levels also range between 80-139mg/dl hence blood sugar increases because of the glucose being out of the ranges (Stehouwer & Schaper, 2009). Type 1 diabetes is more of a genetic condition while type 2 is due to lack of physical activity and obesity among other life style living. The clinical manifestations of diabetes vary depending on the type of diabetes. However, they exhibit some common signs and symptoms, for example excessive thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, increased fatigue, and unusual weight loss. Classification can also be according to the level of diabetes in that in the cause of hypoglycemia, which is low glucose level in the blood the clinical manifestations include: shaking, sweating, dizziness, anxious, fast heart rate, hunger, weakness, impaired vision, fatigue, and headaches. In the case of hyperglycemia which is the increase of glucose level in the blood due to lack of its transfer in to the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Coup in Honduras of 2009 - Research Paper Example At the same time, the 2009 Honduras coup demonstrated the weakness of inter-American system of conflict settlement, as well as the absence of political will on the side of the U.S. to live up to its own commitment to promoting the principle of legitimate elected government in the Western Hemisphere. The presidency of Manuel Zelaya proved to be marred by constant conflicts between the executive branch of government and the Congress and judiciary, with the latter being bitterly opposed to the redistributive economic policies proposed by the president. Even though Zelaya had been known as a relatively conservative politician before his election on 27 November 2005 , the program of reforms his government embarked on from 2006 onwards was roughly modeled on the measures undertaken by Chavez administration in Venezuela. Among the most prominent policy steps taken by Zelaya government, one should include such measures as the increase in minimum wage, the governmental efforts at modernizing the telephone system, and the general attempts at increasing the well-being of the socially disadvantaged strata of population. The populist socioeconomic program undertaken by Zelaya, nonetheless, relied on the growth in bureaucratic apparatus directly controlled by the president, which led to increase in corruption and notable authoritarian tendencies in the conduct of the government. The fact that the implementation of ZelayaÃ¢â¬â¢s policies coincided with the first shots of the global economic crisis being experienced as early as the late 2006, did not add efficiency to his government. Moreover, ZelayaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy, which was aimed at limiting traditional ties with the U.S. and launching closer partnership with Venezuela and Bolivia within such inter-governmental structures and bodies as ALBA, alienated the wide strata of Honduran population that were opposed to increased entente with Chavez, as well as the traditional political elites that feared further Ã¢â¬Ësoc ialistÃ¢â¬â¢ policies and resented breaking ties with the U.S. The last factor that led to coalescing of anti-Zelaya forces around conservative opposition and the military was the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts at revising the national constitution that became the source of controversy in March to June 2009. On 23 March Zelaya declared his attention to add the fourth ballot to the future election that was to be held in November 2009. The presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s intention was that of convening the constituent assembly that was to revise the constitution of Honduras. A preliminary poll for ascertaining the desirability of convening the constitutional assembly was due to be held on 28 June 2009, according to ZelayaÃ¢â¬â¢s plans. The media controlled by traditional oligarchy launched an anti-Zelaya campaign, while the government made use of its new powers to impose pro-government reporting on some national media3. The resulting controversy pitted the key national political forces Ã¢â¬â th e Conservatives and Liberals Ã¢â¬â against each other, while the Liberal Party found itself split
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Social Media - Research Paper Example The content of the posts on the social media account also adds to the success of the channel of advertising. They should be enjoyable, clear, and informative to the audience not only on the product and sales but also on other aspects. Quotes and jokes are included in the posts to ensure that they are interesting; hence, they attract maximum followers. Being relevant and current is also an important component of social media advertising. Content is frequently updated to ensure that it makes sense mainly depending on the audience. Additionally, it reduces the risk of monotony that not only leads to reduced followers but also loss of the potential buyers to consume the product (Evans, & Mckee, 2010).. Conciliation- When using this method to solve a dispute, the third party gives offers on the solution that vary depending on the variables of the conflict. Law provisions are considered in conciliation (Wankel, Marovich, & Stanaityte, 2010). The best method of resolving customer disputes occurring from purchases from social media provided business links should be negotiation. This is because it offers the best for both parties after negotiating the most favorable terms. The method also ensures that the solution will enhance a stronger bond between social media and business. The federal government can best control the transactions on social media by regulating the number of viewers of the social media posts. Federal government regulates and monitors the number of viewers the sales will also be regulated. The government also introduces policies, rules and procedures to be followed by the firms that use the social media for advertising and selling of either goods or services. The three main branches of government are the executive, judiciary, and the legislature. Making laws is the main function of the legislature (Lathrop, & Ruma, 2010).
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Evil Dead - Movie Review Example Applied upon on a vague background of movingfogappears the title, swaying waywardly. It fades away and the camera begins to move over what is exposed to be a dark pond in a gloomy forest in the kind of 'how do they do it' tracking shot for which the film is known (America Online, 1994). The camera races through the woods evading trees with inches to spare, in place of some subjective point of viewthat is clearly not human beings. The soundtrack is a loomingdissonance of hollow laughter and bizarre howling tones. Inter-cut with these glimpses of a world seen through the eyes of some inconceivable evil, are shots of a car wandering through a forest. Inside are five innocent looking youngsters, two of them are singing happily. There is no clear connection between the two until thecamera comes to the edge of the forest and takes a glimpse down onthe automobile that the youngsters are traveling in. At thesame time some kind of unknown force takes control of the car, almost crashing it into a meeting truck. It is then apparent that they are not welcome into these woods. A rather indiscrete indication is received in the way common to many horror movies of the lesser kind, most particularly the "Friday 13th" series. A slight remark, an improbablejustification and then the event is forgotten. What could go wrong They're blissful school kids going away to have fun. The bridge that nearly collapses beneath their car is passed in a similar, hasty fashion. Not even the hammock on the porch ofthe house that swings by it self without any wind draws more than a brief, uncomfortable glance. As is often the case in horror movies, the actualhorrorstarts off comparatively peacefully. The hints of what is tocomearerather subdued, but not essentially less scary. One memorable scene, for example,where one of the girls is making a drawingofaclockonthe wall; suddenly the swinging pendulum stops, as if this is only happening in her individual time zone, and her hand starts awkwardly to draw of its own concurrence. The result, on a torn, shrunk paper is a rudimentary sketch of a book with face-like features on thecover. As she regards it with a disgusted sort of wonder, thetrapdoor in the floor in front of her rattles on its hinges andsomething is heard diminishing down in the darkness. Technical Aspects "The Evil Dead", like all Sam Raimi films, contains an abundance of energetic, flamboyant camera moves and some very effectual editing. However, there are some who would say that this is nothing but cheap effects anticipated to cover up weaknesses in the story line, which is a bit like saying that any movement in a balletthatisn't necessary for the characters to get from one place to another is to be evaded. Camera moves canhave a splendor of their own, lending essence to people and things and making the screen seem 'less flat'. In "Evil Dead" they also serve to create a feeling of unknowingness and threat, especially combined with peculiar sound effects and a musical score that is often close to complete noise. Conclusion The total budget for the film was less than 350.000 American dollars (worldwideboxoffice.com). As a consequence, the make-up and effects don't look like something from
Friday, August 23, 2019
Holy Orders - Research Paper Example According to the Catholic Church, Christ instituted some of the Seven Sacraments during his ministry. The evidence of these seven sacraments is written and oral both in the tradition, to which the Catholics refer to as the deposits of faith. In addition, the use and presence of all the seven sacraments in the early years of the church are both, documented and present in writings of the Church fathers and as well as the Christian historians. Christ believed that these sacraments were instituted so that the human beings could see a sign of the spiritual effect that they often wish to receive. It was ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s way of showing that the spiritual reality is transpired1. Episcopates or bishops are those individuals that are chosen in the Catholic Churches from among the priests. As in the Eastern Catholic Churches married priests are permitted, bishops should be the ones who are widowers, unmarried or those who agree to have no sexual contact with their wives. At times a common miscon ception is seen in all the bishops that they come from the religious orders. This cannot be taken as the absolute reality while it is partially true. The bishops in the Catholic churches should usually be the leaders of the territorial units that are called dioceses. The bishops alone hold the validity to administer the Sacrament of Holy Orders in the churches. Moreover, only bishops are lawfully allowed to administer the sacrament of confirmation in the Catholic churches. In case an ordinary priest administers the sacrament illegally, it is considered to be valid in the condition so that the person who is confirmed may not be confirmed again either by a bishop or by any other. Special permission can be given to the Latin rite priests who have special permission to lawfully administer confirmation. In fact every Catholic priest must administer confirmation with or without confirmation to the children who are in danger of death. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, the confirmation is a dministered by priests who have the rite and this is usually administered to both babies and adults immediately after their baptism2. The ordained priesthood in the Roman Catholic Church and the common priesthood are different and operate in different functions and essence. The Catholic priesthood is the ministerial priesthood of the Catholic priests and bishops. This ministerial priesthood is however, servicing at the priesthood of all believers. This involves the direct consecration of a man towards Christ with the sacrament of orders. This is so that the person can act as the person of Christ to be for the sake of the Christian faithful in being able to dispense the sacraments. In the long history, it was understood that this begun at the Last Supper when Jesus Christ was seen instituting the Eucharist in the mighty presence of all the Twelve Apostles. Christ had commanded them to do it in his memory. However, the Catholic priesthood is considered to be a share of the priesthood of Christ and it traces its origins seen in the history to the historic appointment of the Twelve Apostles by Jesus Christ. What makes someone a priest is that he should already be a deacon and a minister of the Holy Orders being an ordained bishop? This is the Rite of Ordination. The duties of the Catholic priests would be divided into three main parts; these include the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Is the Criminal Justice System Bias Essay Abstract This paper will ask several questions and hopefully answer most of those questions. Questions like is the criminal justice system bias against the poor and is the criminal justice system bias against minorities. We then explore some of the possible solutions to the problems that could cause biases. We then look at a study done on several communities where relations between police and the public had repaired their relationship. Body ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easy to understand why people see the criminal justice system as biased. Our of all of our states prisoners forty percent can not even read; and sixty-seven percent did not have full-time employment when they were arrested. So there are more uneducated people in prison then there are educated people. This seems like then that our system of criminal justice is operated on an unequal system against poor or uneducated people. However, one of the problems we run into when we try to compare the wealthy lawbreakers to poor lawbreakers is the wide difference between the amount of wealthy people and poor people we have in our population. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1989, the wealthiest one percent of United States households owned nearly forty percent of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. The wealthiest twenty percent owned more than eighty percent of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. That leaves precious little for the restÃ¢â¬ (Cole, 2000). This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t just true with adults, but with children and teenagers too. The number of poor/under-funded schools in America far outweighs the number of wealthy schools in America. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s probably the main reason our system appears to be unfair against the poor. The reason that any pole or nation wide research will be bias against the poor or lower class is because there is a much larger poor/lower class population than a wealthy/high class population. Most AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s will probably not want to believe that our criminal justice system is not operated on equality. AfterÃ all our nations Supreme Court even has the saying Ã¢â¬Å"Equal Justice Under LawÃ¢â¬ written above the entranceway. There are several very famous Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions that uphold equality for the poor. In Gideon v. Wainwright they made it a law that the state must provide a lawyer to all defendants who have been charged with a serious crime and cannot afford a lawyer. In Miranda v. Arizona the Supreme Court decided that police must provide all suspects with an attorney. These court decisions might be a little misleading since both were decided during the time of Chief Justice Earl Warren, who was strongly liberal and very supportive of economic equality. Since then the principles of equality from both decisions for Gideon v. Wainwright and Miranda v. Arizona have been cheated and twisted so that neither decisions are upheld to the full extent that they were intended (Cole, 2000). ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s enough bashing our court system. There are actually many things that police officers do witch can be biased. For example the Fourth Amendment says that we have a right against unlawful searches and seizures. However, police officers all the time and request their consent to search them or their belongings (without ever having any basis for suspicion) without ever informing them of their right to refuse the search. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily a bias against the poor but it makes sense to me that an officer would judge somebody on appearance. There is also the means of transportation we have to consider if law enforcement is bias to the poor. Say hypothetically some wealthy person is traveling across the country to a birthday party. How are they going to travel? Most wealthy people would probably travel across country like that by means of flying. While flying, people do not come in contact with that many police officers nor are they in many positions where they would normally break the law. However, say there is a poor person who is traveling the same distance to the same party but does not have the money to fly. The cheapest mode of transportation is definitely by way of buss. While traveling by buss there is definitely a larger chance of contact with the police than when traveling by air. There are also many more opportunities for crime to be committed while traveling on a buss. Again we have the situation where itÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessarily that the poor are treated differently but are maybe just in environments where c rime is committed more often, which would explain why it seems that the system is biased against them (Rothwax, 1996) So I feel like we could come to anÃ agreement now that the criminal justice system is not necessarily biased against the poor at the law enforcement side of the criminal justice system. However, the courtroom side of the criminal justice system seems indirectly biased against the poor, simply because each trial can be different depending on how much money they defense and the prosecution have available to them. Now lets talk about other ways that the criminal justice system could be bias. What about race? Are people treated differently depending on their ethnicity? Most people probably agree that there are some ethnic groups who are treated differently than other ethnic groups in the criminal justice system. Statistically minorities are disproportionately victimized by crime. Ã¢â¬Å"African Americans are victimized at a rate of 150 percent higher than whitesÃ¢â¬ (Cole, 2000). Blacks are typically more involved in almost every kind of crime more so than whites. These crimes can include rape, aggravated assault, and armed robbery. Homicide is actually the number one leading cause of death among young black men. Most crime is interracial and so it could be argued, just as it can with the topic of biases against the poor that the reason for higher crime rates for black is because most poverty stricken areas, or the inner city, have majority black populations. Therefore the criminals would be black, the victims would be black, and all the statistics that came from that area would rate blacks more prone to commit crime than whites. Now lets look at some cases. For instance the videotaped beating of Rodney King by Los Angeles Police Department officers was a huge eye-opener for most of America. It was said of that beating that for many blacks saw that as trea tment they expected from the police. They were not surprised by that beating what so ever. Curtis Tucker, a California Assemblyman, was quoted saying at a subsequent hearing on Los Angeles Police Department practices, Ã¢â¬Å"When black people in Los Angeles see a police car approaching, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know whether justice will be meted out or whether judge, jury, and executioner is pulling up behind them.Ã¢â¬ There was even this one officer who earned the nickname Ã¢â¬Å"the MechanicÃ¢â¬ because he would Ã¢â¬Å"tune people upÃ¢â¬ which apparently is police slang for beating up people. This Ã¢â¬Å"MechanicÃ¢â¬ once testified that the beatings were widespread. When asked the question of weather he beat up people whom he arrested he replied, Ã¢â¬Å"No. We just beat people up in general. If theyÃ¢â¬â¢re on the street, hanging around drug locations. JustÃ¢â¬âIt was a show of forceÃ¢â¬ (Rothwax,Ã 1996). The officer even admitted that the majority of the beating victims were either black or Hispanic; although he claimed that the attacks were not motivated by racial tension. There have been very disturbing patterns of corruption and brutality in the police force of almost every high-crime area studied. These corrupt acts include stealing from drug dealers, engaging in unlawful searches, seizures, and car stops, even dealing and using drugs. If instances like this is what our police force has come down to then our country is far worse off then I ever realized. I do however believe that this is probably a much smaller percentage than what some statistics would lead us to believe but it is not a problem that I believe can be overlooked. So what can be done? Can something be done? Are we as a country so far gone that we can come back? I believe we can. I believe that we have become to far separate from the community. We have to bridge the gap that has grown between law enforcement/the criminal justice system and the public lower class people. How do we do that? Ã¢â¬Å"The thing we need most is perspectiveÃ¢â¬ (Walker, 1980). One thing that could be the answer to our problem is community based policing. In Canada they passed the Police Services Act of 1990 that might be a good refere nce for our current agencies to look back on. What the Police Services Act did was make the Chief of Police responsible for community-oriented policing (Kuck, 2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Community based policing is both a philosophy and an organizational strategy that allows the police and community to work together in new ways to solve problems of crime, disorder and safety. It really only has two elements: changing the methods and practice of the police and taking steps to establish a relationship between the police and the publicÃ¢â¬ (Groenewald, 2004). The Philosophy of community based policing is based off of the idea that the public has a right to give their input on policing. It also relies on the idea that to find a solution for community problems both the police and the public must look past individual crimes and incidents, and instead try to find ways of confronting the more important community problems. What does community based policing look like though? Community based police officers need to be much more than mere crime fighters and must be public servants in many ways. Reforming the police alone, however, is not enough. Community support and assistance are also necessary. Community based policing therefore encompasses strategies to reorient the public who, forÃ good reasons, have been leery and distrustful of the police. Building partnerships between the police and communities is a major challenge that not many people or organizations have every really attempted. The philosophy of community based policing asks both the police and the public to take a leap of faith and a commitment to change. It would be a long process that would require drastic action to be taken at multiple levels meaning that there would be detailed planning necessary to turn philosophy into reality within the police and among the public. There was a study where Kuotsia Tom Liou from the University of Central Florida and Eugene G. Savage from Florida State University looked at the impact of community policing by looking at three neighborhoods in West Palm Beach, Florida before and after the implementation of a community oriented policing program. Lets take a look at what they found. They had 3 communities with the first consisting of mainly white residents, mainly single-family homes, apartments, and small businesses. The second community was primarily black consisting of a concentrated public housing project, single family homes, apartments, small businesses, several churches, and a public middle school. The last community consisted of whites, Hispanics, blacks, and Haitians. The community was made up of single family homes, apartments, small businesses, and several churches. It was their goal to find out how community policing affects difference types of communities. The results of their study showed that after the community based policing had been going on sixty-eight percent of surveyed citizens felt that crime had decreased. All age groups, race groups, and all three neighborhoods shared the belief that crime had decreased. Even if the crime rates had not gone down in reality it would still really help relations with police officers just that the citizens believe it had. In addition to the feeling like crime had gone down they also asked in their survey how they felt about the relationship after six months of the community policing. Among the respondents to the survey eighty-eight percent felt that the relationship between the police and their communities as getting better. We started this paper with the question of is the criminal justice system bias. We talked about the relationship between law enforcement and the public. We talked about one of the possibilities of how we could rebuild that relationship. We then looked at some research where a relationship was made better by use of community policing.Ã Hopefully we can use research like this to help make this world a more perfect world. Reference Page: Cole, D. (2000). No equal justice, race and class in the american criminal justice system. New York: New Press, The. Rothwax, H. (1996). Guilty: The collapse of criminal justice. New York: Random House. Walker, S. (1980). Popular justice. New York: Oxford University Press. Kuck, H. (2004). Racial pride and consciousness trilogy: Addressing hate crime and racial discord through community policing. Canadian Journal of Police and Security Services. Dec. 2004: 243. Criminal Justice Collection. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. Groenewald, H. and Peake, G. (2004). Police Reform through Community-Based Policing. New York. Liou, Kuotsai. and Savage, Eugene. (1996). Citizen perception of community policing impact.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Posting on Reading Essay Education Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã How education is valued and how it is tied up with culture and the structure of society is the focus of the article. Moreover, several factors that encourage people to attend higher education are also explored in the article. For instance, several examples about the South Korean culture were revealed in the article in order to emphasize how the view of education changes depending on the culture. For the South Koreans, education is seen as a status symbol and not a stepping-stone to acquire a job in the future. The good thing about it though is that statistics has shown that the percentage of dropouts is less in areas that believe in the relationship between education and societal value. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã People from different walks of life have varying points of view regarding education. A survey conducted in order to determine the reasons why people choose to attend higher education reveals that reputation or culture and the enhancement of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition are the topmost reasons why people value their education. At this point, people view the learning and understanding of the English language as an instrumental skill in order to accomplish an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s aims to gain a high and respectable social status. Koreans nowadays are struggling to learn the English language, as it gives one a high rank in the social climate. Koreans spend time and effort in studying English that they are willing to undergo rigorous testing just to speak English well. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Perhaps, the article does not only discuss education as part of culture. I think the issues in this article also have strong connections with globalization. As the world moves to become a global village, people are forced to increase their chances of belonging to the international community. This objective shall only be accomplished through further education. This is probably one of the reasons why education is seen as a form of earning a high rank in society because being well educated and learning to speak English well keeps you in a range of belongingness with the rest of the global community. The Costs of Educational Zeal Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The article explores the effects of KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s valuing of education to the costs of attending the educational institution. Apparently, with the KoreanÃ¢â¬â¢s growing value for education and the educational institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s goals to enhance the quality of education, the costs of higher educations have also reached a high. The reasons underlying the high cost of education in the country was explored under different regimes. The influence of colonialism to the educational system of the country contributed much to the high cost that they require of education. Moreover, majority of educational institutions in the country require expensive rates for their services because most of them are privately owned. At this point, I ask myself, why do they need to pay expensive taxes for education when most of the educational institutions are private? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There was not any change during the Park Chung HeeÃ¢â¬â¢s term as president of the country. During this time, education was neglected, therefore there were no efforts coming from the government to fix the problem expensive costs of education. Reflecting on it, education in the country has really become a social status, such that only those who can afford it are able to gain the quality education that they deserve. Moreover, the government does not care less whether the people are able to afford education. This reveals how the voices of those people who cannot afford to attend educational institutions are not being heard. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another factor that influenced the high costs of education was what the people called Kwaoe. Kwaoe is the Korean term for tutoring. This service requires large amounts of money that people cannot help but complain about its cost. At this point of time, the government was able to address this issue and ban tutoring all over the country. Throughout the years, noticeable efforts to alleviate the rising cost of education were evident when reviewing the performances of past governments. However, their efforts were not enough to lessen the cost of paying for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s education. The failure of governments to remodel their educational system is understandable, because from the beginning, the faulty budgeting and financing for educational institutions was adapted by the country. What the country needs to work on is modifying the educational system in order to identify its flaws and once and for all end the high costs of education.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
LSD Induced, Yeti, Euphoric Sojourn Drugs can clear away the past, enhance the present; toward the inner garden, they can only point the way. Lacking the temper of ascetic discipline, the drug vision remains a sort of dream that cannot be brought over into daily life. Old mists may be banished, that is true, but the alien chemical agent forms another mist maintaining the separation of the 'I' from the true experience of the One.1 This passage comes from The Snow Leopard, by Peter Matthiessen. In this passage Matthiessen describes what he has learned from the experiences he had with hallucinogenic drugs, such as ayahuasca, LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. He is concerned mostly with the spiritual nature of such drugs, and reveals that while drugs are always harmful, they can provide a starting point for spiritual growth. Hallucinogens clear 'old mists';(47); they let you perceive yourself without any armour. They force you to stand naked and alone, without any defense to your own emotional states. You become very close to the oneness Matthiessen describes, 'Then I breathe, and the mountain breathes, setting the world in motion once again.';(198) Nevertheless this oneness is very hard to achieve in practice and harder still to maintain. Drugs always leave you short of the goal of oneness because the drugs themselves are an obstacle, a mist that will always stop you short of total oneness. Drugs will always hold you back because they are harmful, and while you are experiencing a drug trip you are doing nothing but experiencing a drug trip; the drugs can do nothing but induce that hallucinogenic state. Also you are unable to do anything other then experience that state. This is also a reason why drugs are able to 'point the way';(47) to spiritual unity, oneness. Drugs force you to live in the present, in the sense that you are totally consumed by the drug and are doing nothing except being high. This is another draw back of the drugged experience you cannot escape you must wait until the drug wears off before you can concentrate on anything else. You are one with the drug and its affects. If you are going to try and concern yourself with something other than the drug experience that you are involved in, you will become very nervous. An anxiety attack will start to creep over you, reminding you to concern yourself with only what is happening now.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth is very strange. In the relationship, throughout the play, both take turns to assume the role of being the dominant partner. What is unusual about this is the fact that at this period in time, the man typically was the one controlling the relationship, but in this case, for a lot of the time it is in fact Lady Macbeth that is the dominant force in their relationship. In Act 1, Scene 5 we can see that Lady Macbeth is very ambitious for Macbeth. I believe that the reason she is so eager for the prophecies about Macbeth to come true, is because she knows that if Macbeth becomes a more important figure in society, so will she. Lady Macbeth declares, Ã¢â¬Å"Glamis thou art, and Cawdor; and shalt be what thou art promised.Ã¢â¬ This tells us that she is very optimistic and confident of the prophecy coming true, and Macbeth succeeding Duncan as king. Although this statement shows that she is confident of Macbeth becoming King, she then goes onto show some signs of uncertainty over MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s kind and gentle nature, by confessing, Ã¢â¬Å"Yet do I fear thy natureÃ¢â¬ . This tells us that she is concerned that Macbeth lacks the evil ruthless streak that is needed for him to kill Duncan and succeed him as king. In order to enhance any evil and ruthlessness that Macbeth does possess, Lady Macbeth tries to make Macbeth feel that he deserves to be king more than Duncan by using flattery. She says to Macbeth Ã¢â¬Å"Great Glamis! Worthy Cawdor! Greater than bothÃ¢â¬ , which through sarcasm suggests that he is above these titles, and thoroughly deserves to be king. In this scene we can clearly see that Lady Macbeth is t... ...d helped each other in their time of need. Before they became king and queen they worked together as a team, this is shown by the way that Macbeth calls Lady Macbeth his Ã¢â¬Å"dearest partner of greatness,Ã¢â¬ however this is not the case after they gain the crown, as they both work as individuals. This may be a contributing factor to the deterioration of their relationship. Although parts of this play go against the way men and women behaved during relationships at the time, the final outcome is in keeping with the traditions of the time. This moral of this play is that women cannot handle a role of powerfulness and dominance, with Lady Macbeth yielding to the effects of her powerfulness, and eventually becoming insane, whereas men prosper with power and dominance, with Macbeth now stronger and more powerful than ever before.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Role of the Narrative in Milton's LycidasÃ Ã Ã This paper focuses on the role of the narrative in the funeral elegy. To start, the concept of the narratee has been most deeply explored by Gerald Prince from a narratological perspective. Narratology is primary concerned with narrative patterns in fiction. In this regard, any attempt to apply the terminology commonly used in reference to fiction (and prose) to poetry seems problematic. One has to account for the differences or the similarities between the genres in order to put the discussion of the narratee in the elegy into its proper perspective. The current trend leans heavily on Bakhtin's study of the structure of the novel. In the Dialogical Imagination, Bakhtin created a sort of dichotomy between the monologic (poetry) and the dialogic. The novel becomes the site of dialogical discourse par excellence (49). But how valid is a wholesome distinction between genres within which there is so much diversity? Doesn't Bakhtin create a dichotomy which pays little consideration to the possibility of polyphony in specific texts regardless of formal classification? It may be time to consider a literary work not as a predetermined product cast in a deterministic mold, but as a dynamic system that transcends the prevailing assumptions that are supposed to define its identity. The formal definitions can be just external to the composition of the text since we cannot expect the reader to know exactly what the author intended to write without falling into the trap of intentional fallacy. To be sure, readers from different backgrounds can "hear" different voices in a text. Readers who are initiated in a particular literary environment may find the prosodic features they hav... ...enius. The death of Lycidas becomes a "national" tragedy. The principle of substitution works here: the poet who reminds his countrymen of the previous life of a dead poet also pleads for himself, seeks visibility through public discourse. In the context of the scarcity of patronage for poets in the seventeenth-century, a poet like Milton had reason to make such a plea by appealing to the puritanical instincts of an audience that would identify with a chaste genius who died in his integrity. The convoluted metaphor of purity is indeed a "wish-fulfilling dream" as Sacks points out (100). Works Cited Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: U of Texas P, 1992. Prince, Gerald. "Introduction to the Study of the Narratee." Poetique 14 (1973): 177-96 (reprinted in English). Sacks, Peter M. The English Elegy. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP, 1985. Ã
Saturday, August 17, 2019
A. Introduction The global technological and scientific setting today withstands the phenomenal rate of growth of information technology. Every nation is concerned on the international trend on technology, pursuing studies to maintain their global competitiveness. While computer is at hand, and is a conclusive evidence of advancement in science and technology; it is a task to maximize its purpose, primarily in learning. Computers have made such an enormous impact on our society today. There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a place where you can turn into without computer. Computer, together with the connection to the Internet is such a useful thing for college students. Computer is a programmable machine that can perform computations including numerous arithmetic operations or logic operations, without intervention by human operator during run. But then, computer is here not to replace human skills out rather to ease the burden of work and expand the learning horizon of students. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: it responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner and it can execute a pre-recorded list of instructions (a program). B. Statement of the Problem The proponents observed the factors that may affect the learning capabilities of students. For that reason, the proponents would like to answer the following questions: 1. Did computer helps or affects the learning abilities of college students? 3. What are the positive and negative effects of computers that can affect the learning abilities of the students? 4. What are the impacts of such technological advancement to the learning process among students? 5. What actions did the parents do, knowing that there are several advantages and disadvantages of using technologies that are intended to lessen the complex work of man? C. Objectives of the Study Generally, this study aims to know how computer helps or affects the learning capabilities of the students. Specifically, this study aims: 1. Know what computers and Internet do to the studies of the college students. 2. Lessen the risks of computer misuse and to uphold the proper utilization of it. 3. Determine the positive and negative effects of computers. 4. Persuade the parents to set limitations and take actions on their children in using such technologies. D. Significance of the Study This study will considerably be significant to the students, proponents, parents and future researchers because this will help them to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the computers and this will also help as a baseline data for the similar studies. This study will be able to help students identify factors that can affect their performance and on how to improve their knowledge and skills as college students by using such said technologies without causing problems with their studies. The proponents will be also benefited by this study because this will improve their abilities and expose them to different advantages and disadvantages of this so that they will be able to know how to handle or face such situation. For the parents, they will be able to know to what are the factors that affect or help their children and they will also identify what to limit or what to encourage to their children in using the said technological advancement inside or outside the academe. This will help the future researchers to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the computers and this will also help them as a baseline data for the similar studies. E. Scope and Delimitation This study focuses on the harm or help done by the computer and Internet. The purpose of this study is to know how it affects or helps the students in their academic learning. The researchers considered working on this study to find out if the selected students were helped or affected by the said massive technological advancement and to guide them with the proper utilization of the said technology. E. Definition of Terms Computer. An electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) in a particular form and of performing a sequence of operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals. Computer Software. Programs, procedures, rules and any associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system. E-mail. Message, typically text, sent via telephone lines and modems from one personal computer to another, or to a commercial network or E-mail service that stores the senderÃ¢â¬â¢s message until the addressee comes to get it. Information Technology. The acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of various types of information via computers and telecommunications.